The Hypoglycemic and Hyopcholestrolemic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Cannabis sativa in Albino Rats Esra M.M Ali, Sara.A.M.A, Salwa M.E.K, Samia.H.A and Abdelwahab A.H.M1
Central Veterinary Research Laboratories (CVRL), Animal Resources Research Corporation. P.O Box 8067 Alamarat Khartoum Sudan; 1Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Institute, National Centre for Research, P.O. Box 2404, Khartoum
A B S T R A C T
The present study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic and hyopcholestrolemic effects of Cannabis sativa in albino rats. Hyperglycemia was induced by injecting 2g/kg BW of 50% glucose solution intra peritoneal to rats fasted for 18 hours. Freeze-dried aqueous extract of the aerial part of C. sativa at dose rates of 800 mg/kg BW was also administered orally. The plasma glucose was determined after 0, 1, 2 and 4 hours following glucose loading. The result revealed decrease in plasma glucose. This hypoglycemic effect of the extracts was mild when compared to that of the standard hypoglycemic drug (Glibenclamide). The hyopcholestrolemic effect was not evident until the 4th hour of the experiment, where it decreased significantly compared to the control. Keywords: Hypoglycemic effects; Cannabis sativa; Glibenclmide; albino rats Corresponding author: Esra M.M Ali, Central Veterinary Research Laboratories (CVRL), Animal Resources Research Corporation. P.O Box 8067 Alamarat Khartoum Sudan. INTRODUCTION
human. Seeds and leaves are fed to animals and seeds oil
and stalks are burned for fuel. Whole plants, leaves and
Diabetes mellitus is known to cause elevated blood
wood have environmental uses (Clarke, 2002). The hemp
level as well as increasing the mobilization of plant in many cultures and countries was used triglycerides with abnormal formation of ketone bodies.
therapeutically for the treatment of chronic ear, nose and
Accelerated ketone bodies formation can lead to acidosis,
throat disorders, acute external otitis, laryngitis,
coma and death in untreated type-1 diabetes as stated by
pharyngitis, sinusitis, tonsilratslitis and trauma (Grigoriev,
Stryer (1998). Also high plasma cholesterol level might
2002). Cannabis sativa and its Cannabinoids DELTA- 9-
lead to atherosclerosis which is a consequent disease
hydrocannabinol was used against bacterial, protozoal
arises as a complication of diabetes mellitus (Murray et
and viral infections, immunity, and cytokines syntheses,
al., 1991). Statin drugs provides effective cholesterol-
studied both in vitro and in vivo (Cabral, 2001). The aim
lowering therapy and are widely prescribed (Stein, 2003)
of this study was to find the hypoglycemic and
but they are expensive and can cause side effects and even
hyopcholestrolemic effects of Cannabis sativa in albmino
In Sudan, Cannabis is known as bango and hashish.
The name bango in Sudan may be derived from the Indian
MATERIALS AND METHODS
name bhang. The fruit and flower tops of the female plant
and their adjacent small leave have the highest
Sample of Cannabis sativa was collected from
concentration of Cannabinoids. Only the female plant of
Southern Kordofan state and were authenticated in the
Cannabis sativa L. has so far been thought to contain the
Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Institute. The
active ingredient Tetrahydrocannabinoal (THC) as whole plant was used in the experiment. 75 gm of the reported by Hanus and krejci (1981).
plant was subjected to freeze drying till dryness. The
Sixty six Cannbinoids have been isolated from powder residue was redissolved in the coarsely powdered
cannabis plant. All classes derived from cannabigerol-
whole plant of Cannabis sativa, soaked in 500 ml of
type compounds differ mainly in the way this precursor is
boiling distilled water and left for 2 hours at room
cyclized. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol temperature and then filtered. Glibenclamide, an oral (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) are the most prevalent
hypoglycemic drug, belongs to the group sulphonylurea
natural Cannabinoids and have received the much (second generation) was used. Wister albino rats of either attention (Bums and Ineck, 2006).
sex were used. They were obtained from the National
Parts of this plant are used in human medicine and
Experimental Animal House (NEAH), in the Medicinal
livestock disease. Whole seeds and seed oil are eaten by
and Aromatic Plants Research Institute (MAPRI),
J Ethnobiol Ethnopharmacol, 2012, 1(1): 10-12.
National Center for Research Ministry of Science and
Table 2: The effect of aqueous extract of C. sativa on cholesterol concentration of rats
Twenty healthy mixed sex Swiss Wister albino rats
were deprived of feeds for 18 hours. They were divided
95.59±0.43a 95.55±0.32b 132.13±0.84a 284.53±0.25a
into 4 groups, each of 5 rats and weighting 90-140 gm. All
94.59±0.10a 98.34±0.90b 81.05±0.01b 175.80±0.36b
groups were immediately injected glucose (50%) at a dose
90.23±0.85a 110.14±0.96a 129.05±0.62a 185.35±0.67b
2g/kg intra peritoneum and subjected to glucose tolerance
Means values bearing different superscript letter(s) within a
row are significantly different (P≤0.05); A-CMeans values
test. Animals were apparently healthy and they were
bearing different superscript letter(s) within a column are
identified by color tail marks. One week was allowed for a
significantly different (P≤0.05); A = control group; B = Group
preliminary adaptive period. Group A was given 10 ml/kg
treated with Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg); C = Group treated C.
normal saline and served as a negative control group.
Group B was injected with 10 mg/kg BW Glibenclamide
(hypoglycemic drug) and served as a positive control
group. Rats in group C were drenched orally via a plastic
gastric tube with 800/g/kg of freeze-dried aqueous extract
The present study was conducted to determine the
hypoglycemic effects of aqueous extract of Cannabis
Two ml of blood was withdrawn by capillary tubes in
Sativa. In this study the dose of aqueous extract of
fluorinated test tubes from the orbital plexus of rats under
Cannabis sativa administered orally to rats showed
inhalation anesthesia using halothane (Khana, 1993). lowering effects in the plasma glucose after forth hour. They were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 5 minutes to
This result agreed with that obtained by Reem (1993) who
separate plasma. The prepared plasma was used to showed that 1 g/kg of the freeze-dried aqueous extracts of estimate the glucose and cholesterol. Glucose and both Guiera Senegalensis and Medicago sativa cholesterol were determined according to the method of
administered orally caused a glucose lowering effects in
the rats. The hypoglycemic effects of the C. sativa
aqueous extract may be attributed to enhancement of
insulin release or possibly due to increase in glucose
The experimental data were analyzed by employing
peripheral consumption. This assumption can be further
the paired one way Anova analysis of variance (Snedecor
confirmed by the effects of the extracts on peripheral
glucose consumption as explained by Konuklugil et al.
(1996). The hypocholestrolemic effect of C. sativa may
be attributed to the content of the phytosterols in the plant
In this experiment, the administration 0f 800mg/kg of
(Fenstrom, 1999). As shown in the result the aqueous
Cannabis sativa aqueous extract caused a lowering effect
extract of Cannabis sativa showed decrease in the level of
in the plasma glucose level of fasting rats compared to the
cholesterol. The hypocholestrolemic effect of C.sativa
control group. This lowering effect reaches its maximum
may be attributed to the content of the phytosterols in the
value (25%) after one hour. The fasting control group (B)
plant, (Fenstrom, 1999). It was concluded that Cannabis
that was given glibenclamid, exhibited a hypoglycemic
sativa may possessed hypoglycemic and
effects, and a decrease in the plasma glucose level of
hyopcholestrolemic activity. Further research is need to
37%, 60.38%, 42.62% and 92.96% when monitored at 0,1
, 2 and 4 hours respectively. Group (A) which was given
10ml/kg of normal saline, showed increase in the plasma
glucose and cholesterol level except that at 4hour. The
third group (C) that received the aqueous extract of
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Table 1: The effect of aqueous extract of C. sativa on glucose concentration of rats
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