Scientific Citation Style: McMillan and CSE
McMillan's Writing Papers in the Biological Sciences, 5th edition, is located in the reference area of the library (AC1.M36 2012) and in the circulating collection, and may be purchased at bookstores. Writing Papers is based on the Council of Science Editors (CSE) Scientific Style and Format manual, 7th edition, located in the reference area of the library (AC1.S386 2006).
When you use the words or original ideas of another person in your writing they must be documented. There are several different formats used for documentation in the biological and environmental sciences, including APA style; consult your instructor to determine which is appropriate for your field. ______________________________________________________________________
HOW TO CITE SOURCES IN THE TEXT
In the sciences, sources of information (references) may be identified in the text of the paper rather than in footnotes. The in-text reference information you provide leads the reader to the "Literature Cited" section at the end of your paper, where complete information is provided. Following are just a few examples from Writing Papers in the Biological Sciences, using the Harvard System (Name-Year). Consult McMillan, Chapter 6, for additional examples. DIRECT QUOTES. Use direct quotes sparingly, but when you do, include the page number: Rith-Najarian (1998, p.3) has written, ". WORK BY ONE AUTHOR A recent study.(Scipione 2008) suggests that.
The presence of hairs on a leaf can increase.(McCoy 1996).
WHEN THE AUTHOR'S NAME IS PART OF THE SENTENCE In Chandler's (2009) study of. WORK BY TWO AUTHORS Other researchers (Silsby and Dunkle 1981) have suggested. WORK BY THREE OR MORE AUTHORS Henry et al. (2000) have suggested that…
White-lined bark beetles.(Zorn et al 1992).
MULTIPLE WORKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR The role of plasmids…has been described.by Wylie (1988, 2002, 2009). TWO OR MORE WORKS BY DIFFERENT AUTHORS Many different models have been proposed… (Watkins 1997, 1999; Moss 2000; Cappy 2010). ARTICLE OR CHAPTER IN AN EDITED VOLUME Cite the author of the material you are referring to, not the editor(s) of the entire book WORKS YOU HAVE NOT CONSULTED DIRECTLY (try to avoid doing this!) Arcari (1954, cited in Castrodale 1985) reported that. Note: List both sources in the Literature Cited section WHEN NO AUTHOR IS GIVEN, use the first few words of the title in place of the author's name; add an ellipse before the date This species has been reported.(Common dragonflies.1999). UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL (including e-mail and personal communicatons) D. Craine (personal communication; unreferenced) has suggested. This species has also been found.(L Urban, 2000, unpublished data; unreferenced). Note: Do Not list unreferenced material in the Literature Cited section
THE LITERATURE CITED SECTION
(also called References or References Cited)
The Literature Cited section at the end of your paper includes all, and only, those sources cited in your paper.
Journal articles, books, documents, and unpublished works all appear in the same list, alphabetically by author's last name (if there is no author, use the first few words of the title) Single space each entry, and double space between entries 2 to 10 authors: list all; more than 10, list the first 10 followed by et al. Punctuation and abbreviations are important! For details, please consult McMillan or CSE. EXAMPLES OF PRINT SOURCES JOURNAL ARTICLE BY A SINGLE AUTHOR Sacher DB. 1994. Budesonide for inflammatory bowel disease: is it a magic bullet? N Engl J Med 331:873-4. ARTICLE OR CHAPTER IN AN EDITED VOLUME Petter JJ. 1965. The lemurs of Madagascar. In: DeVore I, editor. Primate behavior: field studies of monkeys and apes. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. p. 292-319. JOURNAL ARTICLE WITH TWO OR MORE AUTHORS Vaughan JL, King KA, Cottrell RR. 2004. Collegiate athletic trainers’ confidence in helping female athletes with eating disorders. J Athl Train. 39(1):71-76. ORGANIZATION AS AUTHOR [ICPO] International Committee for Preservation of Odonata. 2000. Guidelines for evaluating dragonfly habitats as conservation areas. Boston: Entomological Publishers. ANONYMOUS WORK Health care for multiple sclerosis. 2006. New York: US Health Care. \ NEWSPAPER ARTICLE Koleta G. 2007 Jan 7. Kill all the bacteria! New York Times;Sect. B:1(col.3). BOOK Schott J, Priest, J. 2002. Leading antenatal classes: a practical guide. 2nd ed. Boston (MA): Books for Midwives. BOOK WITH AN EDITOR Danforth DN, editor. 1982. Obstetrics and gynecology. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Harper and Row. BOOK WITH TWO TO TEN AUTHORS Hepburn PX, Tatin JM. 2006. Human physiology. New York: Columbia University Press.
CITING ONLINE SOURCES PROFESSIONAL OR PERSONAL SITE:
give the author(s) and the title - the most prominent words on the page -, followed by
provide the place of publication or origin, followed by
NOTE: web pages often have several dates, as shown below: publication date (when the material was placed on the internet), the copyright date (c), the latest revision date, and the date the site was viewed by the writer. HOMEPAGE APSnet: plant pathology online [Internet]. c1994-2005. St. Paul (MN): American Phytopathological Association; [cited 2005 Jun 20]. Available from: http://www.aspnet.org/ ARTICLE FROM AN INTERNET-ONLY JOURNAL Nuorti P, Kotilainen P, Lappalainen M. 2003 May. Travel associated probable case of SARS, Finland, with commentary from Health Canada. Eurosurveillance Wkly [Internet]. [cited 2005 Apr 12];7(22):[5 p.]. Available from: http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ew/2003/030529.asp WEB SITE Information about influenza pandemics [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; [updated 2005 Mar 8; cited 2005 11 Apr]. [about 2 p.]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen-info/pandemics.htm ARTICLE FROM ONLINE JOURNAL DATABASE Kingsolver JC, Srygley RB. 2000. Experimental analyses of body size, flight and survival in pierid butterflies. Evol. Ecol. Res. [online];2:593-612. Available from Biological Sciences database. Accessed 2000 Oct 3. ELECTRONIC VERSION OF JOURNAL ARTICLE ALSO AVAILABLE IN PRINT St. John RK, King A, de Jong D, Bodie-Collins M, Squires SG, Tarn TWS. 2005 Jan. Border screening for SARS. Emerg Infect Dis [Internet]. [cited 2005 Apr 8]; 11(1):6-10. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol11no01/04-0835.htm ONLINE BOOK Ruch BJ, Ruch DB. 2006. Homeopathy and medicine: resolving the conflict [Internet]. New York: Albert Einstein College of Medicine [cited 2007 Jan 28]. Available from: http://www.einstein.edu/medicine/books/ruch.html
Überörtliche Berufs-ausübungsgemeinschaft Bei über 90% der oft wässrigen Durchfäl e kommt es nach zwei bis maximal sechs Tagen spontan zur Ausheilung. Für die Meisten ist somit eine überbrückende, den Flüssigkeits- und Elektrolytverlust ausgleichende Therap ie ausreichend. Die ausreichende Zufuhr von Flüssigkeit und Elektrolyten stel t die aller wichtigste Maßnahme dar und m