• behavior that is atypical, disturbing, maladaptive – e.g. crying (normal at funeral, less so in store) – Psychodynamic perspective: severe unconscious – e.g. fear (normal before surgery, not before dinner) – Medical model (biological): biochemistry, hereditary – For the individual and/or for society – Cognitive-behavioral (learning) perspective: – Often the degree and duration of disruption distinguishes "normal" from "abnormal" – Humanistic: lack of unconditional positive regard, divergence between “perceived” and “ideal” self – Diathesis-stress: genetics + early experiences + • Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental – Mentally ill believed to be possessed by demons Disorders - IV (DSM-IV) links symptoms to – Treatment involved beating, starving, burning, bleeding, – Institutions established to keep psychos away from society (or to show them to society, for a fee) – Pinel used humane treatment (for rich people) as an experiment, called it „moral treatment” • intense, distressing, persistent anxiety, or • continual apprehension, tension and arousal • constant autonomic nervous system arousal • person has difficulty identifying causes of the – short episodes of intense fear/terror • person often responds by isolating self • persistent, irrational, maladaptive fear of a • develop coping mechanisms to avoid/deal with – Agoraphobia -- most common, hardest to treat– Social phobias -- fear of social situations, – Specific phobias -- fear of a particular animal, object or • microphobia• claustrophobia• triskaidekaphobia • persistent, maladaptive, unwanted repetitive – Re-experiencing feelings related traumatic • repetitive thoughts/actions that interfere with daily – anxiety-provoking doubt or uncertainty – behaviors one cannot stop performing– counting, cleaning, checking, avoidance most common – Fears learned through conditioning or past experiences – Persistent and excessive worry about illness in general • Bias toward processing of threat-relevant information – Specific physical ailments for which no biological basis exists (pain, gastrointestinal symptoms…) – Ailments that have had an impact on behavior – Genetic components– Innate disposition to fear certain objects (things deemed – Physical complaints that resemble neurological disorders but have no underlying organic basis (deafness, – Overarousal of certain brain areas (e.g. impulse control) – Behavioral inhibition system overdrive – Childhood repression of intolerable ideas, events or feelings – Psychodynamic perspective: unresolved conflicts – Behavioral perspective: suffering is rewarding • conscious awareness is separated from previous • Did you have imaginary playmates as a child?• Were you physical y abused as a child? • sudden loss of memory or change in identity • Have you ever noticed that things are missing from your – psychodynamic: massive repression of severe, • Have you ever noticed that things appear where you live, but • Do people ever talk to you as if they know you but you don’t • Do you ever speak about yourself as “we” or “us”? • Do you ever feel that there is another person or persons inside • If there is another person inside you, does he or she ever come – failure to recall past events or information – formerly called multiple personality disorder – usually caused by extreme, intolerable stress – 2 or more distinct personalities that dominate in – selectively forget painful or stressful information turns (may or may not be aware of each other) – no organic basis (so recovery possible) – result of severe trauma (physical, emotional, – in addition to amnesia/confusion about identity, • Huge recent increase in reported cases, limited to the US • Majority of recent cases had wide range of psychiatric • may be a relationship to “role-playing” • Inflexible and enduring patterns of behavior • Little sense of responsibility, morality, concern for others, • Deceitfulness, impulsivity, irritability, aggression, … • Society (rather than the individual) views the • Good con-artists (charming & accomplished liars) • Most reliably diagnosed personality disorder • unresponsive autonomic nervous system• Brain function: selective recognition of emotions • Personality disintegration and loss of contact with – Genetic & physiological explanations • Undersensitive (steady drinkers) vs oversensitive (binge • Beliefs about what substances will DO for me – Medical: genetic component, neurochemistry, neurology– Cognitive: expressed emotion in family, communication – Delusions of persecution with hallucinations – lack of insight into others’ motives – Grossly disordered thinking, emotions, – Withdrawal and catalepsy alternating with catatonic • emotional extremes (extreme highs, extreme lows) • If lasts >2 weeks, considered abnormal – Emotional: sadness, despair, hopelessness – Cognitive: inability to concentrate, negative attributional schema, negative self-image – Motivational: passivity, lack of interest & initiative– Physical: fatigue, sleep disturbances, anorexia, social • Formerly called manic-depressive disorder • Moods alternate between very high (mania) and – moods caused by associations to unconscious – anger directed at self results in depression – Emotional: sudden, rapidly escalating emotional state – Cognitive: unrealistic view of capabilities, – Motivational: energetic, impatient, impulsive – learned automaticized thought processes • Stronger genetic component than depression, (attributions, beliefs): self-blame, overemphasis on negatives, failure of appreciation of positives – Biological: drugs, ECS, psychosurgery – Anti-anxiety (tranquilizers)– Anti-maniac (lithium carbonate) – Used to stimulate brain functioning– Used for severe depression – Effective (at least in the short term) & fast – Used to modify areas of the brain thought to be interfering with – explore unconscious drives, motives, and conflicts – Therapy typically involves seeing a therapist 3-4 times a week for • Client-centered therapy (client not considered ill) – change current behavior, attitudes, and patterns of thinking – Self-actualization, or at least greater congruence between – CC: systematic desensitization, flooding, counterconditioning – cognitive skills training -- changing automated thinking patterns: attributions, selective att’n, overgeneralization – active listening, empathic understanding, paraphrasing (restating – depression, anxiety, bulimia, phobias, addiction, insomnia – minor depression, social anxiety– not for serious pathologies – utilize social support and pressure to modify thoughts – Apply to therapeutic procedures as well as drugs • Spontaneous remission (cyclical disorders) – modify individual habits and group patterns – adjustment problems– social anxiety– addictions • Smith & Glass (1977) analysed 375 therapy – Person receiving therapy was better off than 75% of – Fear & self-esteem susceptible to change– No overall differences between therapies– Certain therapies may be more effective with certain • Effectiveness of therapist is more important – Gain trust, maintain good contact with patient– Kind to patients/clients


Sì, è vero, oggi la vita è difficile e una maternità può compli

La pillola RU 486: non lasciamoci ingannare, è comunque uno strumento di morte. Lo scorso 22 dicembre le pagine di cronaca milanese dei giornali hanno riportato la notizia che il nostro Comune ha approvato un finanziamento per avviare una campagna di informazione sulla pillola RU 486. Ad esempio, su Avvenire si leggeva che «il Consiglio comunale ha votato un emendamento al bilancio che

When I encountered the Corpora in Si(gh)te project for the first time (in fact, the photos of the structure, named Corpora so arbitrarily and wittily by biologist Beáta Oborny, author of one of these texts), the image came into my mind of a house I had seen in a small Italian village on the banks of Lake Como. I spent a good part of my summers here, year in year out, obsessively taking refuge a

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