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Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1998 Apr;17(4):290-1.
Septicemia and meningitis due to Streptococcus zooepidemicus.
Ferrandière M, Cattier B, Dequin PF, Hazouard E, Legras A, Perrotin D.
Medical Intensive Care Unit, Bretonneau University Hospital, Tours, France.
A case of septicemia and meningitis due to Streptococcus zooepidemicus in an immunocompetent patient is reported. This organism is an uncommon human pathogen that sometimes causes severe infection, usually in immunocompromised patients. In the reported case, the patient required to be mechanically ventilated for one week and was treated with intravenous ampicillin and gentamicin. He recovered and was discharged from hospital three weeks after the initial presentation. Streptococcus zooepidemicus sensitive to all penicillins, was isolated from all blood cultures and the cerebrospinal fluid.
Investigation of milk-borne Streptococcus zooepidemicus infection associated with glomerulonephritis in Australia.
Francis AJ, Nimmo GR, Efstratiou A, Galanis V, Nuttall N.
Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Australia.
An outbreak of infection due to Streptococcus zooepidermicus is reported. The index case was a patient who suffered an episode of septicaemia complicated by glomerulonephritis. Two other persons in his family were found to be asymptomatic throat carriers. The source of the outbreak was unpasteurised milk from a house cow on the farm where the family lived. Molecular studies confirmed that the strains isolated from the index case, the other family members and the cow's milk were identical. Although a renal biopsy was not performed, the diagnostic criteria for poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis were satisfied. The organism is an uncommon human pathogen that sometimes causes outbreaks of severe infection which may be associated with glomerulonephritis.
Streptococcus zooepidemicus (Lancefield group C) septicaemia in Hong Kong.
Yuen KY, Seto WH, Choi CH, Ng W, Ho SW, Chau PY.
Department of Microbiology, University of Hong Kong.
The clinical findings relating to 11 patients in Hong Kong (HK) and to 43 patients described elsewhere, all with Streptococcus zooepidemicus septicaemia, are reviewed. There was a particular association with
cardiovascular disease (27%) with seven cases of endocarditis, three of abdominal aortic aneurysm and two of deep venous thrombosis. Associations not previously reported included two cases of pharyngitis and two patients with persistent post-operative fever. The overall mortality was 22%. Both human and porcine strains of S. zooepidemicus from HK did not hydrolyse aesculin in contrast to the aesculin-positive biotypes reported previously. HK strains also had very mucoid colonies and capsules of hyaluronic acid were seen in electron micrographs. Samples of chromosomal DNA, extracted by means of HindIII restriction endonuclease, of strains from human beings and pigs were identical. The MIC of penicillin for all strains was less than or equal to 0.03 mg/l but the MBC for all was greater than 32 mg/l. Penicillin alone is generally sufficient for cure but combination with an aminoglycoside may be indicated in seriously ill patients. In our locality, pigs were incriminated as a possible source of human infection whereas consumption of contaminated dairy products is important elsewhere.
Epidemiol Infect. 1987 Apr;98(2):183-90.
Human infection with Streptococcus zooepidemicus (Lancefield group C): three case reports.
Three unrelated severe infections with Streptococcus zooepidemicus occurred in England in 1985. The first patient developed septic arthritis, which has not been recorded before with this organism. The second died with septicaemia, pneumonia and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, the only record so far of nephritis following sporadic S. zooepidemicus infection and of nephritis and systemic sepsis in the same patient. The third patient experienced septicaemia during pregnancy but recovered without complications. A likely animal source of infection was found in only one case.
Epidemiol Infect. 1987 Apr;98(2):171-82.
Characterization of Streptococcus zooepidemicus (Lancefield group C) from human and selected animal infections.
Barnham M, Cole G, Efstratiou A, Tagg JR, Skjold SA.
We assembled an international collection of strains from sporadic and epidemic human infection with Streptococcus zooepidemicus (Lancefield group C) for laboratory study. Cultural and physiological characteristics of the isolates were determined, including biotyping with the API 20 STREP test kit and susceptibility testing with penicillin, erythromycin and tetracycline. The strains were examined for bacteriocin production and sensitivity and typed with a specially developed group-C streptococcal bacteriophage system incorporating a panel of 14 phages. Results of these tests gave useful discrimination between many of the strains: differences were shown between each of the major outbreak strains, including those complicated by post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Serious group C streptococcal infection may be caused by S. zooepidemicus and isolates should be identified to species level; the application of a typing scheme such as this may help to distinguish epidemiological patterns of infection.
J Clin Microbiol. 1980 Jan;11(1):76-8.
Streptococcus zooepidemicus (group C) pneumonia in a human.
Lancefield group C streptococcal pneumonia appeared in a previously healthy young adult. The patient apparently acquired the infection while caring for her sick horse, and experienced a gradual onset of the illness. There was rapid accumulation of pleural fluid and empyema requiring open drainage. Group C pneumonia cannot be distinguished from classic group A pneumonia on clinical grounds. Beta-hemolytic streptococci isolated from sputum, transtracheal aspirates, pleural fluid, or blood of patients with pneumonia should be grouped by the precipitin method of Lancefield or one of its more rapid modifications.
Scand J Infect Dis. 1976;8(3):217-8.
Streptococcus zooepidemicus (group C streptococci) as a cause of human infection.
Cervical lymphadenitis with high fever and respiratory distress in a 3-year-old boy is reported. Group C streptococci were isolated from the boy's throat and these were identified as Streptococcus zooepidemicus. The patient recovered after treatment with penicillin. Strep. zooepidemicus is extremely rare as a causative organism of human infections. Even symptomless carriers are very rare. Group C streptococci isolated from humans normally belong to the species Strep. equisimilis.
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