6. literaturverzeichnis

6. Literaturverzeichnis
Akaike T, Suga M, Maeda H (1998): Free radicals in viral pathogenesis: molecular
mechanisms involving superoxide and NO; Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 217(1): 64-73.
Akama KT, Albanese C, Pestell RG, Van Eldik LJ (1998): Amyloid beta-peptide stimulates
nitric oxide production in astrocytes through an NFkappaB-dependent mechanism; ProcNatl Acad Sci U S A 95(10): 5795-800.
Anderson CR, Edwards SL, Furness JB, Bredt DS, Snyder SH (1993): The distribution of nitric
oxide synthase-containing autonomic preganglionic terminals in the rat; Brain Res 614(1-2): 78-85.
Ankarcrona M, Dypbukt JM, Bonfoco E, Zhivotovsky B, Orrenius S, Lipton SA, Nicotera P (1995): Glutamate-induced neuronal death: a succession of necrosis or apoptosis
depending on mitochondrial function; Neuron 15(4): 961-73.
Antonini E, Brunori M, Greenwood C, Malmstrom BG (1970): Catalytic mechanism of
cytochrome oxidase; Nature 228(275): 936-7.
Arnelle DR, Day BJ, Stamler JS (1997): Diethyl dithiocarbamate-induced decomposition of S-
nitrosothiols; Nitric Oxide 1(1): 56-64.
Arteel GE, Briviba K, Sies H (1999): Protection against peroxynitrite; FEBS Lett 445(2-3):
Asayama K, Burr IM (1985): Rat superoxide dismutases. Purification, labeling, immunoassay,
and tissue concentration; J Biol Chem 260(4): 2212-7.
Asayama K, Yokota S, Dobashi K, Hayashibe H, Kawaoi A, Nakazawa S (1994): Purification
and immunoelectron microscopic localization of cellular glutathione peroxidase in rathepatocytes: quantitative analysis by postembedding method; Histochemistry 102(3):213-9.
Baek KJ, Thiel BA, Lucas S, Stuehr DJ (1993): Macrophage nitric oxide synthase subunits.
Purification, characterization, and role of prosthetic groups and substrate in regulatingtheir association into a dimeric enzyme; J Biol Chem 268(28): 21120-9.
Baker MA, Cerniglia GJ, Zaman A (1990): Microtiter plate assay for the measurement of
glutathione and glutathione disulfide in large numbers of biological samples; AnalBiochem 190(2): 360-5.
Barker JE, Bolanos JP, Land JM, Clark JB, Heales SJ (1996): Glutathione protects astrocytes
from peroxynitrite-mediated mitochondrial damage: implications for neuronal/astrocytictrafficking and neurodegeneration; Dev Neurosci 18(5-6): 391-6.
Bartlett D, Church DF, Bounds PL, Koppenol WH (1995): The kinetics of the oxidation of L-
ascorbic acid by peroxynitrite; Free Radic Biol Med 18(1): 85-92.
Bartosz G (1996): Peroxynitrite: mediator of the toxic action of nitric oxide; Acta Biochim Pol
Beckman JS, Chen J, Ischiropoulos H, Crow JP (1994): Oxidative chemistry of peroxynitrite;
Beckman JS, Ischiropoulos H, Zhu L, van der Woerd M, Smith C, Chen J, Harrison J, Martin JC, Tsai M (1992): Kinetics of superoxide dismutase- and iron-catalyzed nitration of
phenolics by peroxynitrite; Arch Biochem Biophys 298(2): 438-45.
Beckman JS, Minor RL, Jr., White CW, Repine JE, Rosen GM, Freeman BA (1988):
Superoxide dismutase and catalase conjugated to polyethylene glycol increasesendothelial enzyme activity and oxidant resistance; J Biol Chem 263(14): 6884-92.
Behl C (1997): Amyloid beta-protein toxicity and oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease; Cell
Berdeaux A (1993): Nitric oxide: an ubiquitous messenger; Fundam Clin Pharmacol 7(8): 401-
Bertolatus JA, Klinzman D, Bronsema DA, Ridnour L, Oberley LW (1991): Evaluation of the
role of reactive oxygen species in doxorubicin hydrochloride nephrosis; J Lab Clin Med118(5): 435-45.
Bohme GA, Bon C, Stutzmann JM, Doble A, Blanchard JC (1991): Possible involvement of
nitric oxide in long-term potentiation; Eur J Pharmacol 199(3): 379-81.
Bolanos JP, Heales SJ, Land JM, Clark JB (1995): Effect of peroxynitrite on the mitochondrial
respiratory chain: differential susceptibility of neurones and astrocytes in primary culture;J Neurochem 64(5): 1965-72.
Bolanos JP, Peuchen S, Heales SJ, Land JM, Clark JB (1994): Nitric oxide-mediated inhibition
of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in cultured astrocytes; J Neurochem 63(3): 910-6.
Boveris A, Oshino N, Chance B (1972): The cellular production of hydrogen peroxide;
Briviba K, Kissner R, Koppenol WH, Sies H (1998): Kinetic study of the reaction of
glutathione peroxidase with peroxynitrite; Chem Res Toxicol 11(12): 1411-22.
Brorson JR, Schumacker PT, Zhang H (1999): Nitric oxide acutely inhibits neuronal energy
production. The Committees on Neurobiology and Cell Physiology; J Neurosci 19(1):229-35.
Brown GC, Cooper CE (1994): Nanomolar concentrations of nitric oxide reversibly inhibit
synaptosomal respiration by competing with oxygen at cytochrome oxidase; FEBS Lett356(2-3): 295-8.
Brüne B, Dimmeler S, Molina y Vedia L, Lapetina EG (1994): Nitric oxide: a signal for ADP-
ribosylation of proteins; Circulation 89(1): 393-401.
Brüne B, Messmer UK, Sandau K (1996): The role of nitric oxide in cell injury; Kidney Int
Brüne B, von Knethen A, Sandau KB (1998): Nitric oxide and its role in apoptosis; Eur J
Buettner GR (1993): The pecking order of free radicals and antioxidants: lipid peroxidation,
alpha-tocopherol, and ascorbate; Arch Biochem Biophys 300(2): 535-43.
Calka J, Wolf G, Schmidt W (1996): Induction of cytosolic NADPH-diaphorase/nitric oxide
synthase in reactive microglia/macrophages after quinolinic acid lesions in the ratstriatum: an electron and light microscopical study; Histochem Cell Biol 105(1): 81-9.
Carlson SL, Parrish ME, Springer JE, Doty K, Dossett L (1998): Acute inflammatory response
in spinal cord following impact injury; Exp Neurol 151(1): 77-88.
Cathcart R, Schwiers E, Ames BN (1984): Detection of picomole levels of lipid
hydroperoxides using a dichlorofluorescein fluorescent assay; Methods Enzymol 105:352-8.
Clancy RM, Levartovsky D, Leszczynska Piziak J, Yegudin J, Abramson SB (1994): Nitric
oxide reacts with intracellular glutathione and activates the hexose monophosphate shuntin human neutrophils: evidence for S-nitrosoglutathione as a bioactive intermediary; ProcNatl Acad Sci U S A 91(9): 3680-4.
Colton C, Wilt S, Gilbert D, Chernyshev O, Snell J, Dubois Dalcq M (1996): Species
differences in the generation of reactive oxygen species by microglia; Mol ChemNeuropathol 28(1-3): 15-20.
Conner EM, Grisham MB (1996): Inflammation, free radicals, and antioxidants; Nutrition
Conti F, DeBiasi S, Minelli A, Melone M (1996): Expression of NR1 and NR2A/B subunits of
the NMDA receptor in cortical astrocytes; Glia 17(3): 254-8.
Cooper AJ, Kristal BS (1997): Multiple roles of glutathione in the central nervous system; Biol
Crow JP (1997): Dichlorodihydrofluorescein and dihydrorhodamine 123 are sensitive
indicators of peroxynitrite in vitro: implications for intracellular measurement of reactivenitrogen and oxygen species; Nitric Oxide 1(2): 158-66.
Crow JP, Beckman JS (1995): The role of peroxynitrite in nitric oxide-mediated toxicity; Curr
Dawson VL, Dawson TM (1996): Nitric oxide actions in neurochemistry; Neurochem Int
De Marchena O, Guarnieri M, McKhann G (1974): Glutathione peroxidase levels in brain; J
Deby C, Goutier R (1990): New perspectives on the biochemistry of superoxide anion and the
efficiency of superoxide dismutases; Biochem Pharmacol 39(3): 399-405.
Do KQ, Benz B, Grima G, Gutteck Amsler U, Kluge I, Salt TE (1996): Nitric oxide precursor
arginine and S-nitrosoglutathione in synaptic and glial function; Neurochem Int 29(3):213-24.
Dobashi K, Pahan K, Chahal A, Singh I (1997): Modulation of endogenous antioxidant
enzymes by nitric oxide in rat C6 glial cells; J Neurochem 68(5): 1896-903.
Dringen R, Hamprecht B (1998): Glutathione restoration as indicator for cellular metabolism of
astroglial cells; Dev Neurosci 20(4-5): 401-7.
Faber Zuschratter H, Seidenbecher T, Reymann K, Wolf G (1996): Ultrastructural distribution
of NADPH-diaphorase in the normal hippocampus and after long-term potentiation; JNeural Transm Gen Sect 103(7): 807-17.
Flohe L (1989): "The selenoprotein glutathione peroxidase" In: Glutathione: Chemical,
biochemical and medical aspects (Hrsg. Dolphin D, Avramovic O, Poulson R); NewYork, John Wiley & Son.
Fridovich I (1978): The biology of oxygen radicals; Science 201(4359): 875-80.
Furchgott RF, Zawadzki JV (1980): The obligatory role of endothelial cells in the relaxation of
arterial smooth muscle by acetylcholine; Nature 288(5789): 373-6.
Galea E, Feinstein DL, Reis DJ (1992): Induction of calcium-independent nitric oxide synthase
activity in primary rat glial cultures; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89(22): 10945-9.
Galea E, Reis DJ, Feinstein DL (1994): Cloning and expression of inducible nitric oxide
synthase from rat astrocytes; J Neurosci Res 37(3): 406-14.
Gebicke-Haerter PJ, Van Calker D, Norenberg W, Illes P (1996): Molecular mechanisms of
microglial activation. A. Implications for regeneration and neurodegenerative diseases;Neurochem Int 29(1): 1-12.
Gehrmann J, Matsumoto Y, Kreutzberg GW (1995): Microglia: intrinsic immuneffector cell of
the brain; Brain Res Brain Res Rev 20(3): 269-87.
Gille G, Sigler K (1995): Oxidative stress and living cells; Folia Microbiol 40(2): 131-52.
Gow A, Duran D, Thom SR, Ischiropoulos H (1996): Carbon dioxide enhancement of
peroxynitrite-mediated protein tyrosine nitration; Arch Biochem Biophys 333(1): 42-8.
Gregory EM, Fridovich I (1973): Induction of superoxide dismutase by molecular oxygen; J
Griffith OW, Stuehr DJ (1995): Nitric oxide synthases: properties and catalytic mechanism;
Gunasekar PG, Kanthasamy AG, Borowitz JL, Isom GE (1995): Monitoring intracellular nitric
oxide formation by dichlorofluorescin in neuronal cells; J Neurosci Methods 61(1-2): 15-21.
Hakim TS, Sugimori K, Camporesi EM, Anderson G (1996): Half-life of nitric oxide in
aqueous solutions with and without haemoglobin; Physiol Meas 17(4): 267-77.
Halliwell B (1997): What nitrates tyrosine? Is nitrotyrosine specific as a biomarker of
peroxynitrite formation in vivo?; FEBS Lett 411(2-3): 157-60.
Halliwell B, Gutteridge JM (1986): Free radicals in biology and medicine; Oxford, Clarendon
Haseloff RF, Zollner S, Kirilyuk IA, Grigor'ev IA, Reszka R, Bernhardt R, Mertsch K, Roloff B, Blasig IE (1997): Superoxide-mediated reduction of the nitroxide group can prevent
detection of nitric oxide by nitronyl nitroxides; Free Radic Res 26(1): 7-17.
Haun SE, Kirsch JR, Helfaer MA, Kubos KL, Traystman RJ (1991): Polyethylene glycol-
conjugated superoxide dismutase fails to augment brain superoxide dismutase activity inpiglets; Stroke 22(5): 655-9.
Hausladen A, Privalle CT, Keng T, DeAngelo J, Stamler JS (1996): Nitrosative stress:
activation of the transcription factor OxyR; Cell 86(5): 719-29.
Heinzel B, John M, Klatt P, Bohme E, Mayer B (1992): Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent formation
of hydrogen peroxide by brain nitric oxide synthase; Biochem J 281(Pt 3): 627-30.
Henry Y, Lepoivre M, Drapier JC, Ducrocq C, Boucher JL, Guissani A (1993): EPR
characterization of molecular targets for NO in mammalian cells and organelles; Faseb J7(12): 1124-34.
Hevel JM, Marletta MA (1994): Nitric-oxide synthase assays; Methods Enzymol 233: 250-8.
Hohmeier HE, Thigpen A, Tran VV, Davis R, Newgard CB (1998): Stable expression of
manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in insulinoma cells prevents IL-1beta-induced cytotoxicity and reduces nitric oxide production; J Clin Invest 101(9): 1811-20.
Hoyle CH, Burnstock G (1995): "Criteria for defining enteric neurotransmitters" In: Handbook
of Methods in Gastrointestinal Pharmacology (Hrsg. Gaginella TS); Boca Raton, FL,CRC Press.
Hu S, Martella A, Anderson WR, Chao CC (1994): Role of cytokines in lipopolysaccharide-
induced functional and structural abnormalities of astrocytes; Glia 10(3): 227-34.
Huie RE, Padmaja S (1993): The reaction of no with superoxide; Free Radic Res Commun
Iadecola C (1997): Bright and dark sides of nitric oxide in ischemic brain injury; Trends
Igarashi R, Hoshino J, Ochiai A, Morizawa Y, Mizushima Y (1994): Lecithinized superoxide
dismutase enhances its pharmacologic potency by increasing its cell membrane affinity; JPharmacol Exp Ther 271(3): 1672-7.
Ignarro LJ (1990): Nitric oxide. A novel signal transduction mechanism for transcellular
communication; Hypertension 16(5): 477-83.
Ignarro LJ, Buga GM, Wood KS, Byrns RE, Chaudhuri G (1987): Endothelium-derived
relaxing factor produced and released from artery and vein is nitric oxide; Proc Natl AcadSci U S A 84(24): 9265-9.
Ito Y, Hiraishi H, Razandi M, Terano A, Harada T, Ivey KJ (1992): Role of cellular superoxide
dismutase against reactive oxygen metabolite-induced cell damage in cultured rathepatocytes; Hepatology 16(1): 247-54.
Jadot G, Michelson AM (1987): Comparative anti-inflammatory activity of different
superoxide dismutases and liposomal SOD in ischemia; Free Radic Res Commun 3(6):389-94.
Jenner P, Olanow CW (1996): Oxidative stress and the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease;
Juurlink BH, Thorburne SK, Hertz L (1998): Peroxide-scavenging deficit underlies
oligodendrocyte susceptibility to oxidative stress; Glia 22(4): 371-8.
Kappus H, Sies H (1981): Toxic drug effects associated with oxygen metabolism: redox
cycling and lipid peroxidation; Experientia 37(12): 1233-41.
Kitamura Y, Takahashi H, Matsuoka Y, Tooyama I, Kimura H, Nomura Y, Taniguchi T (1996): In vivo induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase by microinjection with
interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide in rat hippocampus; Glia 18(3): 233-43.
Kooy NW, Royall JA, Ischiropoulos H (1997): Oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin by
peroxynitrite; Free Radic Res 27(3): 245-54.
Kooy NW, Royall JA, Ischiropoulos H, Beckman JS (1994): Peroxynitrite-mediated oxidation
of dihydrorhodamine 123; Free Radic Biol Med 16(2): 149-56.
Koppenol WH, Moreno JJ, Pryor WA, Ischiropoulos H, Beckman JS (1992): Peroxynitrite, a
cloaked oxidant formed by nitric oxide and superoxide; Chem Res Toxicol 5(6): 834-42.
Koroshetz WJ, Moskowitz MA (1996): Emerging treatments for stroke in humans; Trends
Kreutzberg GW (1996): Microglia: a sensor for pathological events in the CNS; Trends
Kröncke KD, Fehsel K, Kolb Bachofen V (1998): Inducible nitric oxide synthase in human
diseases; Clin Exp Immunol 113(2): 258-64.
Kröncke KD, Kolb Bachofen V (1999): Measurement of nitric oxide-mediated effects on zinc
homeostasis and zinc finger transcription factors; Methods Enzymol 301: 126-35.
LeBel CP, Ischiropoulos H, Bondy SC (1992): Evaluation of the probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin
as an indicator of reactive oxygen species formation and oxidative stress; Chem ResToxicol 5(2): 227-31.
Leist M, Nicotera P (1998): Apoptosis, excitotoxicity, and neuropathology; Exp Cell Res
Lincoln J, Hoyle CH, Burnstock G (1997): Nitric Oxide in Health and Disease; Cambridge,
Lindenau J, Noack H, Asayama K, Wolf G (1998): Enhanced cellular glutathione peroxidase
immunoreactivity in activated astrocytes and in microglia during excitotoxin inducedneurodegeneration; Glia 24(2): 252-6.
Liochev SI, Fridovich I (1994): The role of O2.- in the production of HO.: in vitro and in vivo;
Lipton SA, Choi YB, Pan ZH, Lei SZ, Chen HS, Sucher NJ, Loscalzo J, Singel DJ, Stamler JS (1993): A redox-based mechanism for the neuroprotective and neurodestructive effects of
nitric oxide and related nitroso-compounds [see comments]; Nature 364(6438): 626-32.
Liu D (1996): The roles of free radicals in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; J Mol Neurosci 7(3):
Liu TH, Beckman JS, Freeman BA, Hogan EL, Hsu CY (1989): Polyethylene glycol-
conjugated superoxide dismutase and catalase reduce ischemic brain injury; Am J Physiol256(2 Pt 2): H589-93.
MacMicking JD, Nathan C, Hom G, Chartrain N, Fletcher DS, Trumbauer M, Stevens K, Xie QW, Sokol K, Hutchinson N, et al. (1995): Altered responses to bacterial infection and
endotoxic shock in mice lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase [published erratum
appears in Cell 1995 Jun 30;81(7):following 1170]; Cell 81(4): 641-50.
Malinski T, Taha Z (1992): Nitric oxide release from a single cell measured in situ by a
porphyrinic-based microsensor [see comments]; Nature 358(6388): 676-8.
Marletta MA (1994): Nitric oxide synthase: aspects concerning structure and catalysis; Cell
Masters BS, McMillan K, Sheta EA, Nishimura JS, Roman LJ, Martasek P (1996): Neuronal
nitric oxide synthase, a modular enzyme formed by convergent evolution: structurestudies of a cysteine thiolate-liganded heme protein that hydroxylates L-arginine toproduce NO as a cellular signal; Faseb J 10(5): 552-8.
Masumoto H, Kissner R, Koppenol WH, Sies H (1996): Kinetic study of the reaction of
ebselen with peroxynitrite; FEBS Lett 398(2-3): 179-82.
Mattson MP, Goodman Y, Luo H, Fu W, Furukawa K (1997): Activation of NF-kappaB
protects hippocampal neurons against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis: evidence forinduction of manganese superoxide dismutase and suppression of peroxynitriteproduction and protein tyrosine nitration; J Neurosci Res 49(6): 681-97.
Mayer B, John M, Bohme E (1990): Purification of a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent nitric oxide
synthase from porcine cerebellum. Cofactor-role of tetrahydrobiopterin; FEBS Lett277(1-2): 215-9.
Mayer B, Pfeiffer S, Schrammel A, Koesling D, Schmidt K, Brunner F (1998): A new pathway
of nitric oxide/cyclic GMP signaling involving S-nitrosoglutathione; J Biol Chem 273(6):3264-70.
McCord JM, Fridovich I (1969): Superoxide dismutase. An enzymic function for
erythrocuprein (hemocuprein); J Biol Chem 244(22): 6049-55.
Mokuno K, Ohtani K, Suzumura A, Kiyosawa K, Hirose Y, Kawai K, Kato K (1994):
Induction of manganese superoxide dismutase by cytokines and lipopolysaccharide incultured mouse astrocytes; J Neurochem 63(2): 612-6.
Molina CR, Andresen JW, Rapoport RM, Waldman S, Murad F (1987): Effect of in vivo
nitroglycerin therapy on endothelium-dependent and independent vascular relaxation andcyclic GMP accumulation in rat aorta; J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 10(4): 371-8.
Moore WM, Webber RK, Jerome GM, Tjoeng FS, Misko TP, Currie MG (1994): L-N6-(1-
iminoethyl)lysine: a selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase; J Med Chem37(23): 3886-8.
Muller A, Cadenas E, Graf P, Sies H (1984): A novel biologically active seleno-organic
compound--I. Glutathione peroxidase-like activity in vitro and antioxidant capacity of PZ51 (Ebselen); Biochem Pharmacol 33(20): 3235-9.
Murphy MP, Packer MA, Scarlett JL, Martin SW (1998): Peroxynitrite: a biologically
significant oxidant; Gen Pharmacol 31(2): 179-86.
Murphy S, Grzybicki DM, Simmons ML (1995): "Glial cells as nitric oxide sources and
targets". In: Nitric Oxide in the Nervous System: 164-90.
Nagele A, Lengfelder E (1996): The superoxide dismutase-mimic copper-putrescine-pyridine
suppresses lipid peroxidation in CHO cells. Implications for its prooxidative andantioxidative mechanisms of action; Free Radic Res 25(2): 109-15.
Nagra RM, Becher B, Tourtellotte WW, Antel JP, Gold D, Paladino T, Smith RA, Nelson JR, Reynolds WF (1997): Immunohistochemical and genetic evidence of myeloperoxidase
involvement in multiple sclerosis; J Neuroimmunol 78(1-2): 97-107.
Nathan C (1992): Nitric oxide as a secretory product of mammalian cells; Faseb J 6(12): 3051-
Nishino T, Nakanishi S, Okamoto K, Mizushima J, Hori H, Iwasaki T, Ichimori K, Nakazawa H (1997): Conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase into oxidase and its role in reperfusion
injury; Biochem Soc Trans 25(3): 783-6.
Noack H, Lindenau J, Rothe F, Asayama K, Wolf G (1998): Differential expression of
superoxide dismutase isoforms in neuronal and glial compartments in the course ofexcitotoxically mediated neurodegeneration: relation to oxidative and nitrergic stress;Glia 23(4): 285-97.
Olson NC, Grizzle MK, Anderson DL (1987): Effect of polyethylene glycol-superoxide
dismutase and catalase on endotoxemia in pigs; J Appl Physiol 63(4): 1526-32.
Ookawara T, Imazeki N, Matsubara O, Kizaki T, Oh Ishi S, Nakao C, Sato Y, Ohno H (1998):
Tissue distribution of immunoreactive mouse extracellular superoxide dismutase; Am JRespir Crit Care Med 158(3): 833-9.
Palmer RM, Ferrige AG, Moncada S (1987): Nitric oxide release accounts for the biological
activity of endothelium-derived relaxing factor; Nature 327(6122): 524-6.
Perry VH, Gordon S (1988): Macrophages and microglia in the nervous system; Trends
Possel H, Noack H, Augustin W, Keilhoff G, Wolf G (1997): 2,7-Dihydrodichlorofluorescein
diacetate as a fluorescent marker for peroxynitrite formation; FEBS Lett 416(2): 175-8.
Post A, Holsboer F, Behl C (1998): Induction of NF-kappaB activity during haloperidol-
induced oxidative toxicity in clonal hippocampal cells: suppression of NF-kappaB andneuroprotection by antioxidants; J Neurosci 18(20): 8236-46.
Prass K, Dirnagl U (1998): Glutamate antagonists in therapy of stroke; Restorative Neurology
Pryor WA (1986): Oxy-radicals and related species: their formation, lifetimes, and reactions;
Radi R (1998): Peroxynitrite reactions and diffusion in biology; Am J Physiol 274(6 Pt 1):
Rebec GV, Pierce RC (1994): A vitamin as neuromodulator: ascorbate release into the
extracellular fluid of the brain regulates dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission;Prog Neurobiol 43(6): 537-65.
Reilly PM, Bulkley GB (1990): Tissue injury by free radicals and other toxic oxygen
metabolites; Br J Surg 77(12): 1323-4.
Reinheckel T, Wiswedel I, Noack H, Augustin W (1995): Electrophoretic evidence for the
impairment of complexes of the respiratory chain during iron/ascorbate inducedperoxidation in isolated rat liver mitochondria; Biochim Biophys Acta 1239(1): 45-50.
Richeson Ce, Mulder P, Bowry VW, Ingold KU (1998): The complex chemistry of
peroxynitrite decomposition: New insights; J Am Chem Soc 120: 7211-19.
Richter C, Gogvadze V, Schlapbach R, Schweizer M, Schlegel J (1994): Nitric oxide kills
hepatocytes by mobilizing mitochondrial calcium; Biochem Biophys Res Commun205(2): 1143-50.
Rothe F, Canzler U, Wolf G (1998): Subcellular localization of the neuronal isoform of nitric
oxide synthase in the rat brain: a critical evaluation; Neuroscience 83(1): 259-69.
Royall JA, Ischiropoulos H (1993): Evaluation of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin and
dihydrorhodamine 123 as fluorescent probes for intracellular H2O2 in culturedendothelial cells; Arch Biochem Biophys 302(2): 348-55.
Rubbo H, Darley Usmar V, Freeman BA (1996): Nitric oxide regulation of tissue free radical
injury; Chem Res Toxicol 9(5): 809-20.
Saran M, Bors W (1994): Signalling by O2-. and NO.: how far can either radical, or any
specific reaction product, transmit a message under in vivo conditions?; Chem BiolInteract 90(1): 35-45.
Schmidt HH, Pollock JS, Nakane M, Forstermann U, Murad F (1992): Ca2+/calmodulin-
regulated nitric oxide synthases; Cell Calcium 13(6-7): 427-34.
Schousboe A (1980): Primary cultures of astrocytes from mammalian brain as a tool in
neurochemical research; Cell Mol. Biol. 26: 505-13.
Schulz JB, Matthews RT, Beal MF (1995): Role of nitric oxide in neurodegenerative diseases;
Schuman EM, Madison DV (1994): Nitric oxide and synaptic function; Annu Rev Neurosci 17:
Shafer RA, Murphy S (1997): Activated astrocytes induce nitric oxide synthase-2 in cerebral
endothelium via tumor necrosis factor alpha; Glia 21(4): 370-9.
Shull S, Heintz NH, Periasamy M, Manohar M, Janssen YM, Marsh JP, Mossman BT (1991):
Differential regulation of antioxidant enzymes in response to oxidants; J Biol Chem266(36): 24398-403.
Sies H (1986): Biochemie des oxidativen Stress; Angew Chemie 98: 1061-75.
Sies H, Masumoto H (1997): Ebselen as a glutathione peroxidase mimic and as a scavenger of
peroxynitrite; Adv Pharmacol 38: 229-46.
Sies H, Sharov VS, Klotz LO, Briviba K (1997): Glutathione peroxidase protects against
peroxynitrite-mediated oxidations. A new function for selenoproteins as peroxynitritereductase; J Biol Chem 272(44): 27812-7.
Sies H, Stahl W (1995): Vitamins E and C, beta-carotene, and other carotenoids as
antioxidants; Am J Clin Nutr 62(6 Suppl): 1315s-1321s.
Singh S, Evans TW (1997): Nitric oxide, the biological mediator of the decade: fact or fiction?;
Skulachev VP (1996): Why are mitochondria involved in apoptosis? Permeability transition
pores and apoptosis as selective mechanisms to eliminate superoxide-producingmitochondria and cell; FEBS Lett 397(1): 7-10.
Snyder SH (1992): Nitric oxide and neurons; Curr Opin Neurobiol 2(3): 323-7.
Spector R (1989): Micronutrient homeostasis in mammalian brain and cerebrospinal fluid; J
Stamler JS, Hausladen A (1990): Oxidative modifications in nitrosative stress [news;
comment]; AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 6(12): 1389-97.
Stamler JS, Simon DI, Osborne JA, Mullins ME, Jaraki O, Michel T, Singel DJ, Loscalzo J (1992): S-nitrosylation of proteins with nitric oxide: synthesis and characterization of
biologically active compounds; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89(1): 444-8.
Streit WJ, Graeber MB, Kreutzberg GW (1988): Functional plasticity of microglia: a review;
Stuehr DJ, Cho HJ, Kwon NS, Weise MF, Nathan CF (1991): Purification and characterization
of the cytokine-induced macrophage nitric oxide synthase: an FAD- and FMN-containingflavoprotein; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88(17): 7773-7.
Stuehr DJ, Kwon NS, Nathan CF, Griffith OW, Feldman PL, Wiseman J (1991): N omega-
hydroxy-L-arginine is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of nitric oxide from L-arginine;J Biol Chem 266(10): 6259-63.
Szabo C (1996): Physiological and pathophysiological roles of nitric oxide in the central
nervous system; Brain Res Bull 41(3): 131-41.
Szabo C, Zingarelli B, Salzman AL (1996): Role of poly-ADP ribosyltransferase activation in
the vascular contractile and energetic failure elicited by exogenous and endogenous nitricoxide and peroxynitrite; Circ Res 78(6): 1051-63.
Tietze F (1969): Enzymic method for quantitative determination of nanogram amounts of total
and oxidized glutathione: applications to mammalian blood and other tissues; AnalBiochem 27(3): 502-22.
Valentine JS, Curtis AB (1975): A convenient preparation of solutions of superoxide aniom
and the reaction of superoxide anion with a copper (II) complex; J Am Chem Soc 97(1):224-6.
Vincent SR (1994): Nitric oxide: a radical neurotransmitter in the central nervous system; Prog
Vincent VA, Tilders FJ, Van Dam AM (1997): Inhibition of endotoxin-induced nitric oxide
synthase production in microglial cells by the presence of astroglial cells: a role fortransforming growth factor beta; Glia 19(3): 190-8.
Vincent VA, Tilders FJ, Van Dam AM (1998): Production, regulation and role of nitric oxide
in glial cells; Mediators Inflamm 7(4): 239-55.
Visner GA, Dougall WC, Wilson JM, Burr IA, Nick HS (1990): Regulation of manganese
superoxide dismutase by lipopolysaccharide, interleukin-1, and tumor necrosis factor.
Role in the acute inflammatory response; J Biol Chem 265(5): 2856-64.
Wahlefeld AW (1983): "UV-method with L-lactate and NAD" In: Methods of enzymatic
analysis: Enzyme I, Oxidoreductases (Hrsg. Bergmeyer HU, Bergmeyer J, Graßl M); ,Verlag-Chemie.
Walther FJ, Wade AB, Warburton D, Forman HJ (1991): Augmentation of superoxide
dismutase and catalase activity in alveolar type II cells; Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 4(4):364-8.
Wei XQ, Charles IG, Smith A, Ure J, Feng GJ, Huang FP, Xu D, Muller W, Moncada S, Liew FY (1995): Altered immune responses in mice lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase;
Nature 375(6530): 408-11.
Weisz A, Oguchi S, Cicatiello L, Esumi H (1994): Dual mechanism for the control of
inducible-type NO synthase gene expression in macrophages during activation byinterferon-gamma and bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation; J Biol Chem 269(11): 8324-33.
Wever RMF, van Dam T, van Rijn HJ, de Groot F, Rabelink TJ (1997): Tetrahydrobiopterin
regulates superoxide and nitric oxide generation by recombinant endothelial nitric oxidesynthase; Biochem Biophys Res Commun 237(2): 340-4.
Wink DA, Hanbauer I, Grisham MB, Laval F, Nims RW, Laval J, Cook J, Pacelli R, Liebmann J, Krishna M, Ford PC, Mitchell JB (1996): Chemical biology of nitric oxide: regulation
and protective and toxic mechanisms; Curr Top Cell Regul 34: 159-87.
Wink DA, Laval J (1994): The Fpg protein, a DNA repair enzyme, is inhibited by the
biomediator nitric oxide in vitro and in vivo; Carcinogenesis 15(10): 2125-9.
Wolf G (1997): Nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase: biology, pathology, localization; Histol
Wood J, Garthwaite J (1994): Models of the diffusional spread of nitric oxide: implications for
neural nitric oxide signalling and its pharmacological properties; Neuropharmacology33(11): 1235-44.
Xia Y, Roman LJ, Masters BS, Zweier JL (1998): Inducible nitric-oxide synthase generates
superoxide from the reductase domain; J Biol Chem 273(35): 22635-9.
Yang L, Tanaka J, Zhang B, Sakanaka M, Maeda N (1998): Astrocytes modulate nitric oxide
production by microglial cells through secretion of serine and glycine; BiomedPharmacother 52(7-8): 308-10.
Yu BP (1994): Cellular defenses against damage from reactive oxygen species [published
erratum appears in Physiol Rev 1995 Jan;75(1):preceding 1]; Physiol Rev 74(1): 139-62.
Zhou X, Zhai X, Ashraf M (1996): Direct evidence that initial oxidative stress triggered by
preconditioning contributes to second window of protection by endogenous antioxidantenzyme in myocytes [see comments]; Circulation 93(6): 1177-84.
Zhu H, Bannenberg GL, Moldeus P, Shertzer HG (1994): Oxidation pathways for the
intracellular probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein; Arch Toxicol 68(9): 582-7.

Source: http://www.connexin.de/oxidativer-stress/070-Literatur.pdf


THIS OPINION IS NOT A PRECEDENT OF UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE THE T.T.A.B. Trademark Trial and Appeal Board P.O. Box 1451 Alexandria, VA 22313-1451 Mailed: June 12, 2008 Opposition No. 91179748 Schering Corporation Diagnostic Test Group LLC Before Quinn, Rogers, and Mermelstein, Administrative Trademark Judges. By the Board: Diag


Group Term Life Insurance Plan Underwritten by Monumental Life Insurance Company, Cedar Rapids, IA Benefits at a Glance for Your Association-Sponsored Coverage. If you’re like most people, you may already Convenient Payment Option have some life insurance coverage. But, if you Premiums for coverage for you and your spouse (if applicable) can automatically be deducted from the haven

Copyright © 2010-2018 Pharmacy Drugs Pdf