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The Pacific War in Relation to Japanese Settlers
in Papua and New Guinea
The Pacific War ended the presence of Japanese settlers in Papua and New Guinea. It was a tragedy, as they were forced to leave when the war began and were never allowed to return. They lost all they had assets, proper- ties, friends and families. This tragedy was caused by imperial and colonial policies of both Japan and Australia.
The Japanese invasion of the South Pacific made the Australian government intern the settlers in Australia. After the war, the Australian government deported them back Japan in order to reinforce their colonial rule in New Guinea. In these events, the settlers suffered the worst. Their physical losses were never compensated by either Japanese or Australian government. Their families were separated. They were too few and too powerless against great nations. In this paper, I shall analyse this case in terms of the development of war-time perceptions toward them by both Japanese and Australians, which appeared in the maturity of nanshin-ron in Japan and in the devel- opment of Australian fear of the invasion from the north. I also examine validity of those perceptions in an attempt to present the reality of the settlers so that I can depict comprehensively the relations between the national policies which were greatly affected by the perceptions and the fate of the settlers.
Key words: Pacific War, Japanese settlers, Papua and New Guinea, nanshin, Australia Introduction
The Pacific War enabled both Japanese and Australians to consolidate their perceptions of the Japanese settlers in Papua and New Guinea. To the Japanese, they were patriots who pioneered the development of the tropical islands for the Empire. To the Australians, they were spies subtly mingled with Papuans and New Guineans in order to prepare the way for the Japanese invasion. The settlers were caught between those perceptions and experienced one of the most tragic events during and after the war.
1. Internment
The Australians promptly interned Germans and Italians upon the outbreak of war in 1 Collaborative researcher. Kagoshima University Research Centre for the South Pacific, Kagoshima, Japan Europe and later Japanese and others. It was the reiteration of the exercise at the time of World War I when Germans ’were arrested, often at gunpoint in their homes or at work, and immediately imprisoned without knowing what offence they were supposed to have com- mitted.’1 At this time the wide concept of ’enemy aliens’ developed, which included naturalised or even Australian-born people who had ’enemy origin’ one or two generations In the late 1930s, the internment policy further developed with a wider concept of enemy aliens and stronger government power. The internment was one of the ’Special Internal Security Measures’ and was executed not under the National Security Regulations but as the The draft National Security Regulations include provisions for the making of orders impos-ing on any person such restriction as may be necessary to prevent him from acting in amanner prejudicial to the public safety or the defence of the Commonwealth. These restric-tions could be applied to any suspected person, irrespective of his nationality; but theywould be applied only to the individuals as such, and the internment of enemy aliens as aclass would be carried out, not under these Regulations, but under the Prerogative.
Restriction orders and detention orders would be issued under the authority of the Minister,or by officers to whom this power may be delegated by the Minister.3 Probably Japanese nanshin in French Indochina greatly affected the internment policy.
The Australians regarded the Japanese as most dangerous enemy aliens and set a policy different from those for Germans and Italians. The Japanese did not receive the considera- tion on account of old age, although the government ’had previously decided not to intern enemy aliens over 70 years old or those who had resided in Australia more than 20 years.’4 This strict policy was based on the War Cabinet’s view of Japanese that ’their well-known fanaticism and devotion to their country would probably lead to attempts at sabotage on the part of any Japanese here in a position to do this.’5 Consequently, the rate of Japanese internment was the highest among enemy aliens in Australia and its territories: the Japanese 97 percent, Italians 31 percent and Germans 32 percent.6 In the last two months before the Japanese invasion, ’leaders of the Rabaul community tried to maintain an appearance of normality.’7 But the coming of the war was obvious to all townsfolk. From early December, Japanese reconnaissance planes appeared, which forced the War Cabinet to order compulsory evacuation of civilians from Papua and New Guinea. At the evacuation, the colonisers revealed their ugliness. They left New Guinean servants and labourers without any instruction and rejected the evacuation of about several thousand Chinese ’regardless of their request.’8 They also distrusted New Guinean police- As in Australia, the administration interned enemy aliens promptly in Papua and New Guinea. Germans were the first. They were interned no matter how long their residence was, as John McCarthy, a patrol officer, recollected: IWAMOTO : The Pacific War in Relation to Japanese Settlers in Papua and New Guinea Now suddenly their nationality was important. Whether they supported Hitler didn’t matter;they were different from other men.9 The same principle was applied to the Japanese, although some Japanese had already left New Guinea, because they knew that the war was about to break out. The Japanese govern- ment secretly informed them of the likelihood of the war in the near future.10 They were told that the arrival of Nan’yo Boeki’s liner Takachiho Maru in March 1941 was the last chance for evacuation.11 Just before the war, the Japanese government set up the Evacuation Committee in the Department of Foreign Affairs and began to advise the Japanese in the South Seas to return to Japan. The government kept the actions top secret in order to pre- vent the leakage of war preparation.12 Despite that, most Japanese 33 people remained in New Guinea.13 Most were long time residents for more than thirty years and had established businesses. Above all, ten of them had New Guinean or local wives and had children.
Early in the morning on 8 December 1941, as soon as the news of Japanese attack against Pearl Harbour and Malaya reached Rabaul, the internment of the Japanese, who were scat- tered in New Guinea, began.14 At eleven o’clock, all twenty two Japanese in Rabaul were arrested and interned in the Rabaul jail.15 On the following day, two plantation managers in Manus, Ikesaki and Hagiwara, were arrested.16 On the same day, Kikuchi Matsukichi, a fisherman, was captured in Buka Island adjacent to Bougainville.17 On 10 December, ten were arrested on the same Island.18 On 12 December, Nakamura was arrested in Talasea.19 The last Japanese was Sasaki Hikokichi, a fisherman and a plantation hand and the only Christian Japanese The internment was a dreadful event particularly for the ten Japanese who had local wives. They were separated from their families. The administration imprisoned the hus- bands in the Rabaul jail with other Japanese, while keeping their wives and children in a separate compound.21 Then the administration sent the Japanese husbands with other Japanese to Australia for internment. It also tried to take some young mixed-race Japanese, following the policy decided by the War cabinet in June 1940 to intern ’all Japanese males over 16 years within Australia and its territories, except those with diplomatic or consular privileges.’22 But this attempt failed, because their mothers resisted desperately. Mapole Nakamura was one of brave mothers. She threatened to kill herself if they took her son The internment agonised Nagahama who had just married in Japan and his wife was due to join him in New Guinea soon. He married Fusae, a woman of his home village Goryo, whom he met when he was back home on a holiday from May 1938 to December 1939. But he alone came back to New Guinea because Fusae was pregnant. She delivered a baby girl in April 1940. But while she was preparing to come to New Guinea, the international situation deteriorated and finally the war broke out and she could not come to her The internment caused complicated feelings to the Japanese. Although they felt that they were betrayed by the Australians with whom they had been in good term for a long time, they still had a deep attachment to New Guinea where they had lived for over thirty years.
Probably those who had experienced World War I expected that the battle would be small in scale and soon over and they would resume their civilian life. At the same time, their patriotism may have been aroused, hearing air-raid sirens and actual bombing. Some hoped in vain that Japanese troops might come to rescue them, then New Guinea would be a Japanese territory and they would enjoy all privileges that their white counterparts had.
Some wrote on the wall of the jail in Japanese that they would help the troops as interpreters so that the troops would try to free them from the internment.25 However, without seeing the Japanese troops, they were loaded in an evacuation ship, the Malaita, with other white evacuees at five thirty p.m. on 8 January 1942. The ship sailed during the night to avoid Japanese planes and reached Sydney on 11 January via Kieta, In Papua, Tanaka and Murakami were interned on 9 December. The recollection of J.
Gill, an Australian intelligence officer, is symbolic of the internment policy. He recalled that ’I had met both Tom Tanaka and Murakama sic and whilst I do not think they were part of the Japanese war machine I suppose it was necessary in the interests of national security to intern them, especially as the Japanese had begun bombing Nauru and Ocean Island.’27 Both were sent to Australia by R.A.A.F. airplane.28 2. Pacific War in Papua and New Guinea
On 23 January 1942, the Japanese South Seas Force, led by Major-General Horii Tomitar o, crushed a small Australian force at Rabaul ’in a matter of hours.’29 The landing force was more than 5,000 men strong. And their landing was supported by about 100 planes from 4 aircraft carriers. The Australians did not have resources to counter such overwhelming force, mainly because they had not militarised New Guinea abiding by the non-military clause set to the mandate territory. The defence line was ’so thin that it was stretched to invisibility.’30 No major military forces had existed, apart from the New Guinea Volunteer Rifles, comprising of about eighty militiamen trained from the outbreak of the war in Europe, until March 1941 when the 2 22 Battalion arrived. Although in September the 17th Anti-Tank Battery was added, the total defence capability remained only two 6-inch guns, searchlights and three out-dated 3-inch anti-aircraft guns.31 Then the War Cabinet, seeing the loss of Prince of Wales and Repulse, decided to reinforce Port Moresby but deserted Rabaul, arguing that ’it was important to retain the garrison at Rabaul as "an advanced observation line", but its reinforcement was not possible because of the hazard of transport- ing a force from the mainland and of maintaining it.’32 The Japanese occupation of Rabaul was followed by occupation of other New Guinea IWAMOTO : The Pacific War in Relation to Japanese Settlers in Papua and New Guinea islands. Their main aim in New Guinea and the Solomon campaigns was ’to cut the US- Australia line’ in the south-west Pacific in order to defend Japanese positions in Micronesia and the Philippines.33 Ideologically the operation was performed under the whole scheme to construct the Dai Toa Kyoei Ken Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere .
However, the Japanese forces were ’entirely unprepared for the geography’ of New Guinea, because the army had had few interest in the area until the outbreak of the war.34 Most troops were transferred from China and were equipped for continental warfare.
Like their counterparts, they knew little about jungle warfare and a tropical climate.
The Japanese victory did not last long. From the mid-1942, the Japanese began to lose; the Allied forces defeated the Japanese at Milne Bay and pushed back their advance on Kokoda Trail. Then the Allied forces started mopping up retreating Japanese from Morobe to West Sepik, while re-taking Manus and air-raiding Rabaul. The Japanese could not strike an effective counter-attack due to lack of their logistic planning. Although the Japanese constructed a strong fortress at Rabaul and occupied some other parts, most of Papua and New Guinea remained under Allied control. Japanese losses were enormous: about 60,000 were killed in battle and 110,000 died of sickness and starvation, whereas the Australians Some Japanese troops committed atrocities and intensified the Australian image of evil Japanese. The best-known case was the Tol Massacre that about 160 Australian soldiers were slaughtered after their surrender. Other cases are cannibalism and rape. The sinking of the Montevideo Maru that carried Australian internees, although it was sunk by a US sub- marine, also deeply affected the postwar Australian perceptions of the Japanese in New Guinea, because most internees were local residents.
However, it was undoubtedly Papuans and New Guineans who experienced most difficult and horrifying time. They were killed by bombing and forced to work for the troops both Japanese and the Allied and their gardens were ravaged by starving soldiers. Their suffer- ing was immeasurable, but the decline of their population in the early postwar period can show the scale of the tremendous impact of the war.36 Japanese waged propaganda war. Nanshin-ron advocates reinforced the justification of Japanese southward invasion, while the Australians were busy depicting an evil image of barbarous and brutal ’Japs.’37 As a result, the images of patriotic Japanese residents in New Guinea and the cruel Japanese military this was true in some cases were created and both became the basis of postwar perceptions.
In Japan, publication of nanshin literature reached a climax. Although there is no data to cover the period from 1941 to 1945, according to the bibliography published by the Nihon Takushoku Kyokai Japan Colonisation Society in 1944, the number of pieces books and for general reference on the South Seas published in 1942 alone occupies 37.9 percent of the ones published from the Meiji period.38 Similarly, the literature about Papua and New Guinea increased. The Society listed 40 books and articles for 1942 and 1943 against the total 84 from the Meiji period.39 Nanshin-ron advocates continued to emphasise historical linkages.40 Irie wrote Meiji nanshin shiko History of southward advancement in the Meiji period in 1943, in which he re-introduced Enomoto’s plan to colonise South Pacific islands, in addition to introducing Meiji nanshin-ron advocates and the stories of the Japanese who migrated to Southeast Asia, South Pacific islands and Australia. He concluded that ’we have to express our sincere gratitude to our pioneers who devoted their lives to the South Seas and left their footprints after suffering from many hardships.’41 Similarly, Sawada Ken wrote Yamada Nagamasa to nanshin senku sha Yamada Nagamasa and pioneers of southward advancement in 1942 and introduced Japanese traders and entrepreneurs who were successful in the South Seas since the 15th century. He argued that ’the Great Asia War is the expression of our national strength that our ancestors have built in the last two thousand and six hundred years since the foundation of the Empire.’42 Suganuma Teifu, one of the few militaristic Meiji nanshin- ron advocates who had been almost unknown until then, suddenly became popular. In 1942 two books were written about him: Eguchi Reishiro’s Nanshin no senku sha Suganuma Teif Autobiography of Suganuma Teifu, a pioneer of southward advancement Hanazono Kanesada’s Suganuma Teifu.43 Ota Kyozaburo, a successful entrepreneur who owned a large Manila hemp plantation in Davao in the Philippines, was also admired; Nomura Aimasa wrote Dabao no chichi Ota kyozaburo The Japanese in New Guinea were no exception. Komine was repeatedly introduced in five books and one journal article which devoted whole or some part to Komine and other Japanese.45 Ono and Nagakura highlighted Komine’s bravery in assisting German pacifica- tion of New Guineans and the Australian navy at the capture of the Komet.
Even a mixed-race Japanese was highlighted. Okada Seizo, a special correspondent of the Asahi newspaper, devoted a chapter to introduce mixed-race boys. He wrote that Wakao son of Yamashita Shichinosuke, one of the plantation managers in Manus paddled from Rabaul to Manus to tell the islanders to assist the Japanese, and the islanders came to Rabaul on five hundred canoes full of provisions and surprised the Japanese. Okada also wrote about Kai Chew, a Chinese boy. According to Okada, he had been waiting for a chance to take revenge on the British because his father was killed brutally by a British official. After the Japanese occupation, Kai Chew joined the Japanese troops and served on the Kokoda Trail and was killed.46 Oral evidence as well as common sense denies these stories. Wakao never went back to Manus during the war and the islanders never paddled five hundred canoes. Kai Chew was forced to work for the Japanese but he never went to Kokoda and he was still alive when I interviewed in 1994.47 New Guineans were also used as propaganda. The writers emphasised that New Guineans were grateful for the Japanese who liberated them from Anglo-Saxon rule. Umino Juzo, a naval correspondent, described New Guineans as ’shin komin new Imperial subjects ’: IWAMOTO : The Pacific War in Relation to Japanese Settlers in Papua and New Guinea We had been interested and also very worried to see what attitudes Papuans and NewGuineans would take towards us when we appeared in front of them all of a sudden. But,contrary to our anxiety, they showed strong friendliness from the day we landed, andcooperated with us. In other words, they were waiting for the Imperial Force, and whenthey saw us they rushed to see us. Why did this happen? One of the reasons is the brutaltreatment of their former rulers, Anglo-Saxons. Another reason is that the Japanese pio-neers who had lived there over thirty years treated the natives well. Because of that, thenatives respect Japan, the country of those pioneers. The third is the strength of theImperial Force that overwhelmed the Australians whom the natives had thought the strong-est race. The gentleness of the Imperial Force towards the natives also helped. The nativeswere deeply impressed by those things, because they are simple.48 Asahi gurafu Asahi Photograph , a photographic magazine, conveyed a visual image of cooperative New Guineans. It showed smiling faces of local children learning Japanese in a school established by the navy at Kavieng, and of adults constructing roads: some of those New Guineans were wearing caps with the emblem of the rising sun.49 All those nanshin propaganda were to reinforce one of the ideological backbones of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere hakko-ichiu the eight corners of the world under one roof . The ’one roof’ is of course Japan.
Contrary to the propaganda, the mixed-race Japanese were not always loyal to the Japanese forces. In Rabaul the Japanese occupation caused mixed feelings to the remaining families, particularly to the mixed-race children. They saw their fathers ’country’s army defeat and ill-treat the Australians who were their fathers’ long time friends. Perhaps some older ones rejoiced to see some friendly and kind Japanese soldiers and willingly helped them.50 But most children feared the Japanese, seeing or hearing about public beheading or other punishment, and obeyed them. Phillip, a son of Tabuchi Yoshimatsu, recollects: ’we were told to work for the Japanese, or see the consequence.’51 Small ones did not under- stand what was happening and just did what they were told by the Japanese or white mis- sionaries. In contrast, New Guinean wives had a different view. They simply did not want to be involved in the war, and kept away from the Japanese or went to bush to hide like The sons of Yamashita, Sakane and Ikesaki, were staying at Nagahama’s residence at the time of the internment. They were the oldest group of the mixed-race children. Nagahama was looking after Wakao Yamashita, after his father Shichinosuke , committed suicide in Manus. Wakao attended the Mission School in Rabaul. Nagahama also looked after Phillip Sakane after his father died in 1934. Phillip also attended the Mission School and took a carpentry class but was dismissed from the class because of his misbehaviour. After that, he was learning boatbuilding at Izumi’s yard.53 Nagahama told the two boys to take care of his five houses when he was taken to Australia.54 After the Japanese landed at Rabaul, Wakao and a son of Ikesaki collaborated with the Japanese. They went to Wide Bay with the Japanese troops and worked as clerks to record particulars of Australian soldiers and civilians who escaped from Rabaul.55 In March 1942, Wakao was ordered to work as a driver.56 Probably he was working reluctantly and disobeyed the order. He was imprisoned with the Allied prisoners from January to May in 1944. During his imprisonment, he often witnessed the Japanese beating prisoners.57 Eleven mixed-race Japanese children stayed in the Vunapope Catholic Mission. Soon the found them and demanded that the Mission give them better treatment. The Bishop Leo Scharmach reluctantly agreed: The Japanese children and the Sisters in charge of them were called up to the Kempei. Themajor Sakakibara was present too. The police declared that they were going to providebetter food for the part-Japanese children. The youngsters got one bag of rice betweenthem and a tin of bully beef or fish each. The Kempei impressed on the Sister: ’this foodsupply is exclusively for the Japanese children.’ The Sister stated bluntly: ’It all goes intothe one pot. I am sure the Japanese children get their share.’ And off she went.58 Later the Japanese removed the five boys, telling the Father that they would educate them in the Japanese language and way of life with a qualified teacher. But they left six Pius Yukio Kikuchi, the third child of Kikuchi Ichisuke, was among the five boys. At the Japanese camp, he did not receive much education but spent most time working for the Japanese. But Kikuchi relates that it was not a hard life for him; the Japanese were kind and taught many things about Japan. The new life was an exciting time for a young boy. He From 1943 to 1945, I worked for the Japanese force. All mixed-race Japanese childrenwere told to work for the Japanese force. I looked after horses and pigs and dug tunnels.
I worked for the gunshuku-han butai Nakamura, Jo Kisaburo Nakamura, Paul Izumi and Endo were there, too. Bonny was acook and once ran away, but caught, and beaten by the back edge of katana sword as punishment. I worked for Sergeant Kanai and Watanabe. Watanabe was higherthan Kanai. Kanai is the one who beat up Bonny Nakamura, but usually he was a very kindgentleman. He beat Bonny to show the seriousness for disobeying the order. I also workedfor Major Sakakibara. Japanese soldiers treated children well and were never cruel.60 headquarters. They were put in a school and were taught Japanese language and songs, but they spent most time fixing boots for the soldiers.61 It was alleged that the MP used the boys to punish others. At the Rabaul War Trial a white civilian witness stated that ’a New Guinean boy was flogged insensible by Felix Asanuma, a half-caste resident of Rabaul, then in Japanese uniform working for the Ramale Kempei.’62 However, no oral evidence from either New Guineans or mixed-race Japanese can confirm the flogging.
Louise Asanuma, a wife of Ichimatsu, was in Rabaul when the Japanese landed, but she IWAMOTO : The Pacific War in Relation to Japanese Settlers in Papua and New Guinea fled to her Filipino father’s plantation at Wide Bay to avoid the battle. Louise’s sister Josephine, who married Kimura Hidejiro, was also with them. However, soon the Japanese forces advanced in Wide Bay, chasing retreating Australians. The family was caught in an awkward situation. The Japanese commander asked them about the Australians. The family probably knew where the Australians went, but they said they did not know. The Japanese believed it because they considered the family was pro-Japanese after finding out that the two women were married to Japanese. The Japanese treated the family well and provided In Manus, the remaining families went to the bush to hide and local people looked after Yamashita family left Pityilu Plantation for the bush in the mainland In Papua, the remaining families were ill-treated by the Australians who feared the pos- sibility of their assistance to the Japanese. Adults were taken to a compound at Gili Gili and were forced to construct the airfield or to do other manual labour. Children were kept in a compound at Baraga throughout the war.66 Mary Tanaka was probably the worst treated.
Some villagers alleged that she looked after a wounded Japanese. The Australians believed this without investigating and locked her up in a cell until the end of the war despite her plea that it was other Papuans who helped the Japanese.67 Tashiro Tsunesuke was the only Japanese resident who came back Rabaul during the war and experienced the war in Papua and New Guinea. Probably he had the same dilemma as Komine had at the outbreak of World War I, caught between patriotism and relations with local people. Although it is hard to know how strong his patriotism was, both written and oral evidence show that he cherished his good pre-war relations and saved lives of New Guineans, white missionaries, Chinese planters and Australians.
In March 1941 he went back Japan in the last Nan’yo Boeki liner. As soon as the war broke out, he was called up to serve the navy as a gunzoku civilian .68 At that time the navy was recruiting Japanese civilians who had an experience in the South Seas.69 On 26 December he was posted to the 2nd Nazuru Naval Special Landing Party at Saipan. On 1 February 1942 he was transferred to the 8th Base Force which was commanding the opera- tions in New Guinea. Then on 10 April he was back in Rabaul, being assigned an additional post under the command of the minsei-bu Britain.70 Until the end of the war, he worked mainly as an interpreter, because he spoke fluent English and Pidgin English and had local knowledge. He was extremely useful for the navy which knew little about New Guinea. He was dispatched to Milne Bay, Bougainville, Nakanai, Talasea and Manus.71 Tashiro impressed Vice-Admiral Kusaka Jin’ichi, supreme commander of the naval forces in New Guinea. Kusaka wrote about Tashiro’s service in his memoir. Kusaka praised his service which saved the naval land unit in the Milne Bay and quoted Tashiro’s diary fully over three pages. The following is his diary.
On 24 August 1942 , I left Buna. I was assigned to the landing operation of the Sasebo 5th Special Land Battle Unit which was to attack Rabi. On the way, at midday on 25th, westopped at Goodenough Island in the north of Rabi and were attacked by ten enemy fight-ers. All our seven landing boats were sunk with most of our food, ammunition and radios,and about ten were killed. Since then, 350 officers and men were isolated on the island.
Every day enemy planes machine-gunned us. We maintained our strength with food fromthe natives, although not enough, while investigating the island and collecting informationabout the enemy. Then we planned to contact the main force at Buna by despatching aparty on a canoe; the party had to paddle 130 miles. About one week later, we managedto obtain a canoe from the natives and despatched three men on it. However, we did nothear anything from them for a week and sent a second canoe. Around this time, the menbegan to die one after another because of the lack of food and medicine. Many got weakand succumbed to malaria. Still we did not hear anything from Buna, and we began toprepare a third dispatch as a last resort, this time by a cutter with a sail. Then our fightercame and dropped a communication cylinder saying ’Stick it out’ and two packets of ko cigarettes . At least one of our previous dispatches was successful. The whole unit was overjoyed. From this time, however, the enemy intensified their raids. The fightersmachine-gunned us from daybreak to sunset. Our planes also appeared from time to timeand dropped supplies of ammunition and biscuits. Meanwhile, malaria patients increasedand died daily. To cremate their bodies in the jungle at night when the enemy reconnais-sance plane was not in the sky was the saddest and most difficult task. Before long, oursubmarine arrived and unloaded a radio, chart, rice and landing boat, and picked up aboutsixty injured and seriously ill men. Unfortunately, the second submarine only unloaded aboat and left, as the enemy night reconnaissance plane noticed its arrival. Later, when wewere radio-communicating with the 18th Unit early in the morning of 24 October, theAustralian forces landed on the island. We fought for two days and finally rebuffed theenemy, although we lost a platoon leader and other ten men. At night on the 16th, we gotaboard the two boats and reached the adjacent Normandy sic 72 Island. At eleven o’clockat night on the 27th, we were picked up by the battleship Tenryu, and in the morning onthe 28th, 200 of us returned to Rabaul.73 Since then, Tashiro engaged in the tasks such as investigating the construction site for airstrips, recruiting and placating New Guineans mainly at Rabaul and Bougainville.
According to Kusaka, he once succeeded in recruiting a thousand New Guineans, and Kusaka expressed deep gratitude for Tashiro’s hard work.74 However, Tashiro did not betray his local friends. In Bougainville, he acquiesced in the presence of Lieutenant Mason, an Australian coast watcher, and the leaking of information by Wong You, a Chinese planter at Kieta.
He Wong states that he owed his life to Tashiro, Japanese Intelligence Officer, who hadtold the officer in charge, who had accused of withholding information concerning myself,that ’this man has known Mason twenty years. You he has known only a day. You cannotexpect him to betray a lifelong friend to a stranger.’75 According to oral evidence, Tashiro ’did not do harm to locals.’76 He was indeed instructing the islanders in Pidgin to take a neutral stand for their safety, lest other Japanese officers could understand.77 Similarly, in Rabaul he was protecting the interests of the mixed-race people and Chinese and visited the Vunapope Mission to see that children were well- IWAMOTO : The Pacific War in Relation to Japanese Settlers in Papua and New Guinea 3. Internment life in Australia
Australians treated the internees well, abiding by the letter and spirit of the Geneva Convention; the internees received the same amount of rations as the camp guards and were similarly housed.79 Most Japanese internees had no bitterness about their treatment by the camp authorities and conditions in the camps.80 It was also the Australian expectation of good treatment of their prisoners of war and internees kept by the Axis that gave the camp authorities a sense of responsibility in their conduct.81 Upon their arrival at Sydney, the Japanese from Rabaul were entrained to Hay Camp in a grazing area about 750 kilometres inland. They arrived at the camp on 27 January and met Tanaka and Murakami from Samarai and the Japanese from the New Hebrides. In the camp there were already about 900 hundred Japanese mainly from Australia and New Caledonia.
On the following day, the camp officers body-searched the new Japanese and confiscated Mixing with other Japanese was a new experience to those from New Guinea. A small group, whose main social contact had been with non-Japanese, was suddenly swallowed up in a large group of the same race. Naturally that gave them a new and clear sense of their national identity. The news of Japanese victories stimulated their patriotism; they needed no longer hide their practices of Shintoism or Buddhism nor their admiration of the Empire.
Nagahama’s diary shows the rise of patriotism in the camp.83 Hearing about the fall of Singapore, the Japanese in the camp gathered and worshiped towards the direction of Japan and prayed silently for the souls of the Japanese soldiers who perished in the battle. They also heard that the Allied bombers raided Tokyo and other cities, but presumed the news was propaganda. They celebrated the Emperor’s Birthday on 29 April, singing a national anthem and praying for Japanese soldiers. They had a feast and enjoyed a sumo tournament.
In the camp the Japanese considered the Battle of Coral Sea a Japanese victory and held a celebration with a gorgeous dinner. The news of the Japanese abortive midget submarine attack against Sydney and Newcastle was solemnly conveyed. And from time to time, they organised a lecture series, entitled kokusei taikai Conference on National Situation , deliv- ered by academic internees in the camp. The lectures were designed to keep their morale On 12 April 1943, the Australian government made a new decision on the status of Japanese internees. It classified merchant seamen as prisoners of war POW and distin- guished them from ’internees’. After this, the government decided that Hay Camp hold only POWs and Loveday Camp in South Australia only internees.84 The new status was incon- sistent in the case of the Japanese from Papua and New Guinea. Technically all were en- gaged in maritime industry, because even planters or plantation managers had to operate vessels to transport copra. But at this stage only Izumi, a boat builder, was considered a merchant seaman and thereby a POW, while other boatbuilders or fishermen were consid- On 10 May 1943, 350 Japanese were transferred from Hay to Loveday Camp in South Australia. All the Japanese from Papua and New Guinea except Izumi were among them.86 The Australians thought the Loveday was ’one of the best locations chosen for the purpose of internment camps’ with ’its temperate climate and its abundance of reticulated water.’87 On the contrary, Loveday did not impress the Japanese. When they arrived, a sand storm was raging. Their first impression of the camp site was that they were brought to the middle of the desert.88 About two months later, the camp authority rechecked the occupa- tion of the Japanese and re-classified Endo, Onoue, Hatamoto, Nakamura and Kimura as POWs and sent them back to Hay Camp with about a hundred other Japanese.89 The Japanese found camp life satisfactory. Nagahama recalled no complaints about the treatment and Hatamoto recalls good treatment. Although they were forced to do various tasks farming, carpentry, wood cutting, etc , they were not too hard. They were fed well.
They could receive medical treatment in the camp hospitals. And they had time for their own pastimes such as sports or organising other entertainment. For instance, Hatamoto used to enjoy making toys for the children in the camp in his spare time.90 The Australian guards observed that the Japanese were the most placid and many were not security risks.91 A Loveday camp official described: The Japanese: Subservient, were model prisoners. Their fanatical desire to maintain ’face’made them easy to handle in their eagerness to obey all orders and instructions to theletter.92 However, the camp authority was concerned about Nagahama who had managed to keep substantial cash and was lending it to others. In Loveday, the Japanese suffered from minor financial hardship. Their pocket money was so little: they received from the Japanese gov- ernment only ’six shillings per week on signing allegiance to the Emperor and his regime.
’93 The camp official interviewed Nagahama about his lending and reported: NAGAHAMA stated that he had unexpectedly been allowed to bring the money from hisestate at Rabaul, and he considered that he ought to help others who had not been sofortunate and had little or no money. He lent the money without interest, and on the wordof the camp leader IJ.51736 ANYEI Morio that those receiving loans would repay himthe sums received when they returned to Japan.94 The camp authority banned transfer of money among internees, although admitting that Nagahama’s lending was a bona fide action and did ’not appear to represent an attempt on his part to gain for himself "political" influence in the Compound.’95 Similarly, the authority 40 to Tsurushima, which Nagahama attempted to send in exchange for three rings.96 He also tried to send money to Onoue at Hay Camp in vain.
IWAMOTO : The Pacific War in Relation to Japanese Settlers in Papua and New Guinea About money it is most disturbing but on application to the Authorities, we were told itwas absolutely impossible to send money over there, so inconvenient situation though it is,please try to bear up. Even here we have been in an awkward situation over money for 2or 3 months we can no longer transfer to any person more than here, too, is inconvenienced, but as it is a Military Order we can do nothing about it.97 The authority kept watching Nagahama’s money lending with deep suspicion; it even re- fused his offer to pay for the poultry for New Year’s Day on the ground that ’this apparent generosity is really intended to extend Nagahama’s influence in the compound.’98 We can only speculate how Nagahama managed to possess a large sum of cash, because usually internees’ money was confiscated at the time of internment. He might have had savings in an Australian bank and made a special arrangement with the camp authority to withdraw cash or he might have been running an unauthorised business like trading rations or gam- bling which was very common among Allied POWs in Japan.99 Many Japanese died at Loveday, because quite a few Japanese were interned in spite of their old age: 108 Japanese died compared to 18 Italians and 7 Germans.100 Tanaka Taichir o was among them. He got sick and was hospitalised. In the Barmera Base Hospital his name was placed on the ’dangerously ill’ list on 30 May 1945.101 Then he recovered for some time and his name was moved to the ’seriously ill’ list on 10 July.102 However, his condition deteriorated once again and his name was placed on the ’dangerously ill’ list on 20 November: the cause was unresolved pneumonia.103 Then he finally succumbed to the illness. He developed a cerebral vascular accident and passed away on New Year Eve in the 64 Camp Hospital. His burial was held at eleven o’clock in the morning on New Year Day Some Japanese experienced accident and sickness, although not fatal. At Loveday, Kikuchi Ichisuke was struck by a truck and admitted to the camp hospital, suffering from a fractured left ankle.106 At Tatura, Ikeda Kunizo’s wife, Toshie, got sick and was taken to Those who had been separated from their families in New Guinea were anxious about their safety, hearing the news of the Allied bombing of Rabaul and other areas and the battle in Manus. Lack of communication increased their anxiety, except Kikuchi and Asanuma who were lucky enough to receive letters from New Guinea.108 Others did not hear anything from their families although they wrote many times. Nakamura’s letters never got through, and a sympathetic official of the International Red Cross Committee sought advice from the Minister of State for External Affairs on Nakamura’s communication with his family.109 Similarly Hagiwara and Sasaki got no replies from their families.110 In 1943 the negotiation on exchanging internees began between Japan and Australia. The Japanese government nominated 678 Japanese including four from New Guinea Hatamoto, Mano, Nagahama and Tsurushima .111 The Australian government refused the exchange of the four for the obvious reason that they were very likely to pass their knowledge of New 4. Deportation
The end of the war was good news to the internees. They expected to be freed from the confinement of three and half years and go home to see their families. However, through newspapers and correspondence with their families, they knew of the devastation of Rabaul.
Probably they knew about a huge number of Japanese POWs and their trials: they could imagine the ill-feeling by the local white residents against themselves. They also knew the devastation of Japan atomic bombing of Nagasaki and Hiroshima and the occupation by The Australians were determined to make New Guinea a Japanese-free area for the defence and governance of New Guineans. The Australians regarded the pre-war Japanese presence as part of nanshin: the Japanese were all associated with espionage activities. They also thought that the Japanese occupation undermined the Australian authority. Therefore the Australians decided that any Japanese influence had to be eliminated in order to restore The repatriation of Japanese internees began in late February 1946. According to Australian sources, at least seven Japanese from Papua and New Guinea Asanuma, Hagiwara, Ikesaki, Kikuchi Matsukichi , Kikuchi Ichisuke and Sasaki for- mally applied for release in Australia.112 Then six out of the seven Matsukichi were transferred to Tatura Camp.113 On 21 February 1946, 18 Japanese intern- ees from New Guinea were deported to Japan with over 2,000 other Japanese, according to whether they wished to return to Japan. They included families of Ikeda and Ishibashi, Matsukichi , Mano, Mori, Nagahama, Segawa, Tashiro, Tsujii and The rest of the ten Japanese applied to return to Papua and New Guinea.115 The Australian government could not deport the ten, because they had local wives in Papua and New Guinea who were technically British subjects, and their release had to be negotiated with the Attorney-General.116 Roland Browne, the Acting Director-General of Security, interviewed the ten who were then moved to Rushworth Camp, following the instruction of the Attorney-General. At the interviews they all expressed their strong desire to go back to live with their families.117 Browne found that ’in all of these cases there is no objection to release’ and reported no objection to their return provided that approval be granted by the Department of External Territories.118 The only exception was Kimura who, Browne thought, ’is an intelligent type and has a very good knowledge of New Guinea waters and it may be thought desirable that he should be required to return to his own country.’119 IWAMOTO : The Pacific War in Relation to Japanese Settlers in Papua and New Guinea However, the Department of External Territories objected, supporting the view of the administrator Murray who was firmly against their return because of the possible ’ill-effect’ The fact that the Territory of New Guinea has been occupied for three years by a Japanesearmy as conquerors makes it highly undesirable to enable a native population to be incontact with Japanese nationals, both in their interests as well as in the interests of theJapanese themselves.120 The administration’s first task after the war was restoration of the pre-war relationship between white masters and black servants. Any Japanese influence that undermined the authority of white masters had to be removed. White planters also feared the destruction of the pre-war colonial relations and petitioned the Minister of External Affairs: In putting forth this request, we have taken into consideration the fact that great numbersof native inhabitants who have been under Japanese control in the occupied areas will beunfit to take on employment for some time, and, by adopting the action submitted, it willbe possible to give these natives a rest period to allow them to reinstate themselves in theirpre-war way of life.121 Murray was aware of an ethical issue that the rejection to the return of the ten Japanese meant separation from their families. But he argued that: In considering the separation from their families that the long war separation will act as ashock absorber and moreover it must be recollected that in some instances the bonds ofaffection are no greater that would be expected of the general run of irregular unions as nodoubt many are.122 Oral evidence denies Murray’s argument. Their wives and children were all longing to see the return of their husbands and fathers.123 Browne objected to Murray’s view and emphasised the point that ’they have been away from Japan for many years, ranging from 29 to 45, and to separate them permanently from their wives and families now in my opinion be wrong,’ and recommended that ’to return them to their home surroundings, from which they were taken into custody, is the only reasonable solution to the problem.’124 Browne and Murray kept on pressing their arguments to the Attorney-General’s Department.125 However, Browne’s view met overwhelming opposition from the Director- General of Security, Murray, Deputy Administrator Phillips and the Assistant Secretary of the Department of External Territories. The Director-General of Security reiterated a tradi- tional Australian fear of Japan’s nanshin: Japanese who were in the islands pre-war, can only be regarded as having been part of theJapanese system of infiltration and espionage related to their so-called ’southward expan-sion movement’. The South West Pacific area is a vital strategic region in which unremit-ting vigilance is a constant requisite. Clearly, no Japanese should again be allowed any-where within such strategic zone. Upon all material counts the re-entrance of anyJapanese would be of ill-effect and it is strongly advised that none be allowed to proceedto any of the areas referred to.126 When Browne argued that the Japanese never exhibited anti-British sentiments before the war,127 Phillips countered saying that they simply had no chance to express such sentiments and emphasised that ’the loyalty of Japanese to their Emperor and country is so notorious that I find it hard to imagine that these Japanese would not have immediately rallied to Nippon had they still in the Territory when the Japanese forces arrived.’128 Phillips also scored a point by arguing that ’their return may constitute an extreme provocation to European, Asiatic and native residents who suffered terribly at enemy hands during the The Assistant Secretary of the Department of External Territories was more aggressive.
He firmly denied the ethical case, regarding the intermarriages as ’all part of the espionage and infiltration plan’ and presented a blatant racist view that ’Japanese have amongst other many undesirable characteristics, a complete lack of any sense of gratitude and certainly no sense of affection or even liking for any others than their own people.’ More importantly, he made a point, which was quite persuasive then, that their return would be a betrayal to the Australians killed in war in Papua and New Guinea.
Finally, and remembering the actions in New Guinea itself, of the Japanese forces beforethey were ejected, any permitted entrance or re-entrance of any Japanese to the Islandswould be likely to be regarded by every Australian in the territory and in Australia aswell as an affront particularly to those bereaved as a result of Japanese aggression.130 Meanwhile the Department of the Army was eager to close the camp due to the cost of maintaining it. As a result, the issue was left to the jurisdiction of the administration, and the Japanese were to be returned to Papua and New Guinea, although their release was yet The Department of the Army prepared transport for their repatriation. At the last moment, Murakami changed his mind and applied for repatriation to Japan.132 Probably he knew that he would not live long due to his old age 75 years old then and wished to see his home country again before his death. But his application was rejected. All ten were sent back to Papua and New Guinea. Cynically, only Murakami was released at Samarai upon his return, while the other nine were kept in custody in Rabaul.
Murray still resisted the release of the nine. They were held in a compound next to the one for the Japanese war criminals who were waiting for trial or serving their sentences in Rabaul. It was an illegal detention, and the Australian officials were aware of that. Cyril Chambers, Acting Minister of External Territories, wrote to the Cabinet: The six civilian internees were held in pursuance of the National Security Aliens ControlRegulations and orders for their release were signed on 27th November, 1946, and theRegulation in question expired on 31 12 1947, five of these appeared to be held ille-gally.It is not clear whether the three who are regarded technically as prisoners of warwho are still held.are legally held.133 While they were in the compound, Izumi died of sickness. He was 54 years old, and was IWAMOTO : The Pacific War in Relation to Japanese Settlers in Papua and New Guinea buried in the cemetery near Talwat where Japanese war criminals were buried. He was not allowed to be buried in the European cemetery like other pre-war Japanese, because anti- Japanese feelings were so strong among residents, particularly among those who had suf- fered under the Japanese occupation. Some greatly resented the pre-war presence of the Japanese in the town and pulled out all Japanese graves erected by Tatsue in the European cemetery and threw them into the sea.134 Most families of the Japanese visited the compound, but the Japanese were never allowed to return to their homes even temporarily. In order to justify this illegal detention, the Australians even fabricated a story. The District Officer in Rabaul reported that ’only one wife of the Japanese internees wished for their husband’s return, the native wives of their internees having re-married.’135 Oral evidence contradicts this. Most families were anxious to see the Japanese back home, and the re-marriages took place some years after the However, some Australians were sympathetic. Gordon Ehret, a long time friend of Asanuma, was back in Rabaul from his military service in the Middle East. He requested the administration to release them, explaining that they had nothing to do with the Japanese forces. His request was not accepted. In fact, Ehret experienced ’the most unpleasant job’ .137 He was appointed as a guard for the compound, as he was one of the few civilians who had military experience. Over the fence, Asanuma begged Ehret for his release. Asanuma’s We are mates, aren’t we? Why do you do this to me?138 Also in Manus, some Australians tried unsuccessfully to release the Japanese. Whitely and Edison, planters in Momote, requested the administration to return Ikesaki and Hagiwara to The administration officials knew that they had no statutory right to deport the Japanese: ’the eight still held cannot be deported as prohibited immigrants owing to their long resi- dence in New Guinea and in regard to the five civilians there is no war-time legislation under which they could be removed from the Territory.’140 But finally the officials managed to find a loophole. Under the Expulsion of Undesirable Ordinance 1935 of New Guinea, they could be deported by the discretion of the administrator. Section 2 reads: Where the Administrator is satisfied that any person who was not born in theTerritory a has since the commencement of the Laws Reprisal and Adopting Ordinance 1921 been convicted in the Territory of a criminal offence punishable by imprisonment for oneyear or longer: or b is a person whose presence in the Territory is injurious to the peace, order, or good Government of the Territory, or whose presence in the Territory is prejudicial to the well-being of the natives of the Territory, the Administrator may make an order for the deportation of that person.
The eight Japanese were deported in 1949, after the longest internment suffered by any of the Japanese. They had been interned for seven years in total.
In contrast, Murray did not object to the release of Murakami in Samarai. Probably his age 75 years was considered, but the main reason is obvious: Milne Bay did not suffer Japanese occupation and the damage to the Australian authority was minimal. The Australians rebuffed the Japanese landing, and in Buna-Kokoda the Australians eventually pushed back the Japanese advance. The postwar administration saw little physical damage or need for rehabilitation.141 And within only two years ’almost complete rehabilitation to pre-war standard’ was achieved.142 Thus by the time Murakami was back, pre-war condi- tions were restored and his return would have hardly affected the Australian authority.
Murakami rejoiced to meet his wife and son, but he had to bring bad news to Mary Tanaka: her father Taichiro had died in Loveday. He also brought a bunch of Taichiro’s hair and gave it to Mary. It was his only legacy left to her. Tanaka’s prewar assets schooners, were all destroyed or confiscated during the war.143 Murakami was fortunate to enjoy the last moment with his family and also to have support from Timperly, a sympathetic Australian official, who was helping him by providing food.
Murakami died in Kuyaro in the same year that he returned.144 A hard life was waiting for those deported from Australia and New Guinea. They went back to poor villages and islands where they had found no bright future and had left decades before. Most had never returned for a long time. They had no means to make a living because all their assets and properties and even petty belongings were confiscated by the Australians on internment and after the war. Moreover, chaotic social conditions in the early postwar Japan made them difficult to adapt to the new life. Even more depressing, their losses of assets in New Guinea were never compensated.
Nagahama suffered the worst financially. He lost all the wealth which he had accumu- lated by hard work during almost forty years in New Guinea. The administration seized, liquidated and distributed his assets, which amounted to Australian POWs of the Japanese, according to Article 14 of the San Francisco Peace Treaty of 1951 and to Section 13F of the Trading with the Enemy Act 1939 1957.145 He passed away at his home village Goryo in September 1960 while his wife was watching. His family suffered severe financial difficulties because Nagahama came back without any money and he often became sick. After his death, his wife and daughter sent a petition to the Japanese Foreign Ministry to inquire about the possibility of compensation for the loss of his assets in New Guinea.146 But the government did not reply.
Some were fortunate to resume their occupations, although it took many years because Shanghai.147 Ishibashi found a job as captain of a sight-seeing boat in his home in Misaki in Kanagawa, and Hatamoto managed to start a boat building business in his island in Got o in Nagasaki.148 Very likely most others sought support from their relatives and suffered IWAMOTO : The Pacific War in Relation to Japanese Settlers in Papua and New Guinea hardships. Some of those who were separated from their families in New Guinea kept onwriting for some years, but later some re-married in Japan.149 In New Guinea, most wives of the Japanese went back to their home villages. In some cases, their mixed-race children were looked after by the Vunapope Catholic Mission inKokopo. Oral evidence indicates that the local population showed little bitterness againstthem. Most were treated like before the war. New Guineans knew that those wives andmixed-race children were different from the Japanese forces. This is manifested well in theoral evidence of New Guinean elders who distinguish the Japanese before the war from theones during the war and relate their cordial relations with the former.150 For, example,villagers of Momote remained loyal to their former plantation manager, Ikesaki, and keptthe plantation intact until his son, Peter, told them that the land was no longer Ikesaki’s and Like those in Japan, generally those left in New Guinea suffered from severe financial hardships. Their breadwinners were taken away and never came back and their pre-war assets and properties had all been destroyed or confiscated by the Japanese and the Australians since the outbreak of the war. Some years after the war, when some local residents began to receive war compensation, some descendants of the Japanese settlers asked about compensation for the losses of their fathers’ assets. Andrew Nakamura inquired of the officials at Rabaul, then the Australian High Commission at Port Moresby, but re- ceived a blunt reply that he should ask the Japanese government because he was part- Japanese. He then asked an official from the Japanese Embassy, who visited Rabaul after the independence of Papua New Guinea. The official promised to consider the matter but Conclusion
The Japanese in Papua and New Guinea were victims of imperial policies. Japanese nanshin-ron advocates created the image that they were patriots serving the expansion of the Empire. And the Japanese military realised nanshin by invading Papua and New Guinea. Naturally that exacerbated the Australian fear of the ’Yellow Peril’. As a result, the Australians eliminated the Japanese from New Guinea. They bitterly recognised New Guinea’s strategic importance and thereby the importance to keep their colonial rule tight.
This meant elimination of the pre-war Japanese influence from New Guinea, even though such elimination would cause separation of the Japanese families for ever. This was proba- bly the least known tragedy caused by the postwar policy of the Australian government. But the direct cause of the tragedy was the Japanese aggression ron. The event represents well the nature of Japanese imperialism that forced powerless minority people to suffer the most. More depressing to the Japanese settlers and their de- scendants is that the postwar Japanese government has been ignoring their plea for compen- sation. Indeed, this is one of the explicit cases that Japanese emigrants are sometimes called HARMSTORF, I. and CIGLER, M. 1985. The Germans in Australia, p. 129, AE Press, FISCHER, G. 1989. Enemy Aliens: Internment and the home front experience in Australia 1914 1920, p. 66, University of Queensland Press, Brisbane Department of Defence. 1939. War Book of the Commonwealth of Australia, NAGATA, Y. 1993. Japanese Internment in Australia during World War II, p. 69, PhD Memorandum for the War Cabinet. 9 May 1941. Australian Archives hereafter AA , MP729 6 65 401 135, ’Internment of Japanese Policy’, Melbourne LAMIDEY, N. 1974. Aliens Control in Australia 1936 46, p. 53, Sydney THRELFALL, N. 1988. From Mangroves to Frangipani: the story of Rabaul and East New Britain, p. 361, unpublished, Australia National University, Canberra WU, D. 1982. The Chinese in Papua New Guinea 1880 1980, p. 40, Chinese McCARTHY, J. 1963. Patrol into yesterday: my New Guinea years, p. 179, Cheshire, Interview by the author with Tabuchi, Philip February 1994, Kavieng, Papua New Guinea hereafter PNG Interview by the author with Hatamoto Otosaku, 3 July 1993, Nagasaki, Japan K. 1986. Japan in the Showa period and Indonesia, p. 317, Keiso shobo, Tokyo Australian archives present inconsistent figures on the Japanese; the Commonwealth Investigation Branch in Queensland recorded 29 Japanese 27 from New Guinea and ’Japanese internments’, 9 Dec. 41, AA, BP242 1 Q39362, ’Japanese internment action’, Queensland , while the Prisoners of War Information Bureau recorded 34 Japanese 33 can be confirmed coming from Papua and New Guinea but AA, MP1103 1 MJ18500-MJ18533, ’Registers of containing in camps in Australia, 1939 1947’, Melbourne . The author uses 33 as most accurate About Japanese settlers in Papua and New Guinea, see IWAMOTO, H. 1995. ’The origin and development of Japanese settlement in Papua and New Guinea, 1890 2 : 97 133 and ’The impact of World War I on Japanese settlers in Papua and New Guinea, 1914 1918’, South Pacific Study, 16 2 : 143 174; ’Japanese southward expansion in the South Seas and its relations to IWAMOTO : The Pacific War in Relation to Japanese Settlers in Papua and New Guinea Japanese settlers in Papua and New Guinea, 1919 1940’, South Pacific Study, 16 2 : 143 174, Kagoshima University South Pacific Research Center, Kagoshima.
Diary kept by Nagahama Taichi, 8 December 1941; Nagahama’s figure of the Japanese contradicts with that of Australian record. It was sixteen, according to AA, AA, MP1103 1 MJ18508 and MJ18511, ibid.
Ibid., MJ18533; Dossier, AA, A367 C72587, ’SASAKI Hikokichi’, Canberra Interview by the author with Andrew Nakamura AA, AWM54, ’Written Records 1939 1945 , 780 1 6, Report on the Directorate of Prisoners of War and Internees at Army Headquarters, Melbourne, 1939 1951, Vol.
1, Part 1, Enemy Internees’, p. 4, Australian War Memorial, Canberra A letter from Nagahama Fusae to Kosaka Zentaro 1960, possession of Nagahama Fusae, Amakusa, Kumamoto, Japan Diary of Nagahama Taichi, 8 to 26 January 1942, op. cit.
GILL, J. 1961. ’The last Days of Rabaul,’ Journal of the Royal Historical Society of Queensland, Vol. IV, No. 3, p. 639, Brisbane ’Memorandum for the Director of Prisoners of War and Internees, Department of the Army,’ 26 May 1947, AA, A518 1 BM836 1,’New Guinea miscellaneous. Death of Tom Tanaka Japanese internee ’, Canberra WIGMORE, L. 1957. The Japanese Thrust, p. 394, Australian War Memorial, Defence Agency, Defence Training Institute, War History Office. 1967a. The army’s operations in the South Pacific, vol. 1. p. 56, Asagumo shinbun sha, Tokyo Defence Agency, Defence Training Institute, War History Office. 1967b. Eastern New Guinea area: the army’s air operations, p. 5, Asagumo RYAN, P. 1972. ’World War II’ In: Encyclopedia of Papua and New Guinea Ed. R YAN, P. , Vol. 2, p. 1223, Melbourne University, Melbourne NELSON, H. 1993 September, ’Ol Japan: from incident to generalisation: Papua New Guinea 1942 1945’, paper presented to the international conference: ’Stirrup, Sail and Plough: Continental and Maritime influence on Japanese identity’, 20th to 23rd September, pp. 7 9, Australian National University, Canberra HORNADGE, B. 1971. The Yellow Peril: A squint at some Australian attitude towards Orientals, p. 52, Review Publications, Dubbo Colonisation Society ed. , 1944. Bibliography of the South Literature, revised edi- tion. Daidoshoin, Tokyo ; the total number of books and articles for general reference published since the Meiji period to the early 1943 was 2104, and the figure for 1942 Ibid., pp. 233 235, pp. 318 319. The author found about 50 more literature pub- lished from 1942 to 1945, but uses the listing of the Japan Colonisation Society because it indicates the general interest of the Japanese during the war.
About pre-war nanshin-ron, see IWAMOTO, H. 1996. ’Japanese southward expansion in the South Seas and its relations to Japanese settlers in Papua and New Guinea, 1919 1940’, South Pacific Study, 16 Yamada Nagamasa and pioneers of southward advancement, p. 2, Chobunkaku, 1942. Autobiography of Suganuma Teifu a pioneer of southward advancement, Father of Davao, Ota kyozaburo, Kaisei sha, Tokyo ONO, Y. 1942. The East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere and New Guinea, pp. 167 176, NAGAKURA K. 1943. Australia and the South Pacific, pp. 317 327, SHIBAYAMA T. 1942. New Guinea, pp. 73 75, Nihon takushoku kyokai, IWAMOTO : The Pacific War in Relation to Japanese Settlers in Papua and New Guinea Guinea,’ Colonial Review, pp. 86 87, Vol. 5, No. 43, Tokyo OKADA S. 1943. Bloody Battle in New Guinea, pp. 202 203, Asahi shinbun sha, Oral evidence collected by the author, January to March 1994, Rabaul, Kimbe, YOSHIOKA S. 1944. Papua, p. 118, Kitamitsu shobo, Tokyo tion in the far South’, Asahi gurafu Asahi Photograph , 2 September 1942. In: Asahi shinbun sha 1975. Social aspects seen in Asahi gurafu in the Showa period, pp. 68 All oral evidence confirm that the Japanese soldiers treated well the mixed-race Interview with Nakamura, Andrew son of Nakamura Soshichi , 23 January 1994, Statement of Nagahama in the interview with camp officer at Loveday, date un- known, , A367 C66677, ’NAGAHAMA Taichi’, Canberra NAGAHAMA,’ 20 January 1943; ’Property statement internees, Taichi Nagahama,’ 2 ’Statement of L.L. Robinson of the New Guinea Volunteer Rifles to F. Holland Esquire, a member of the New Guinea Administrative Unit at Wide Bay, South Coast New Britain,’ 27 February 1942, AA, MP1587 1 97E, ’Evacuation prior to Japanese ’Full statement of atrocity or crime by Bernard Wakao Yamashita,’ 17 December SCHARMACH, L. 1960. This crowd beats us all, pp. 212 213, Catholic Press Interview by the author with Pius Kikuchi Interview by the author with Michael Asanuma ’Full statement of atrocity or crime by Alfred Creswick,’ 12 October 1945, AA, AWM54 1010 4 172, ’Questionnaire of civilians all captured at Rabaul, 23 January 1942’, Australian War Memorial, Canberra Interview by the author with Anthony Asanuma March 1994, Brisbane, Australia; the same episode was introduced by IZUKI S. a Japanese veteran who became one of the best-known comic artists , in his ’By River Lemon’, Ghost Captain, pp. 55 102, Chikuma shobo, Tokyo Interview by the author with Lopar, John; Churuwas, Agnes; Chokoni, Lucas; Nabraposiu, Joseph and Lopra, Matilda elders , 28 February 1994, Papitelai, Manus, Interview by the author with Keksan, Kamui; Pokupeal, Sotil; Ngapen, Amos; Pombuai, Hendry; Kahu, Kaspar and Sandrel, Simon Interview by the author with Namari, Kesaya grand daughter of Tamiya Mabe , 30 December 1993, Basilaki Island, Milne Bay, PNG Interview by the author with Tanaka, Mary December 1993, Samarai, Milne Bay, PNG.
’Curriculum vitae’, date unknown, AA, 471 1 81211, ’War crimes. Proceedings of Military Tribunal. Tashiro Tsunesuke’, Canberra stration in the South’. In: War History Office, Defence Training Institute, Defence Agency ed. 1985. Civil administration in the South, p. 183, Asagumo shinbun sha, KUSAKA, J. 1968. All quiet on the Rabaul Front, pp. 74 77, A.I.B., Report on Bougainville New Ireland Choiseul B.S.I.P. Network, 21 Sep 44 to 31 May 1945, in LONG, G. 1963. The Final Campaigns, p. 137, Australian War Memorial, Canberra; a similar comment was made in FELDT. E. 1946. The Coast Watchers, pp. 136 137, Oxford University Press, Melbourne Interview by the author with Pulau, Joseph Bougainvillean doctor and now lives in Rabaul , 25 January 1994, Rabaul, Read to Commander, H.Q. 8 M.D., 19 September 1946, AA, A471 1 81211, op. cit.
IWAMOTO : The Pacific War in Relation to Japanese Settlers in Papua and New Guinea Diary of Nagahama, 27 and 28 January 1942, op. cit.
Diary of Nagahama, 10 May to 4 July 1943, op. cit.
Advertiser South Australia 1946. Internment in South Australia, p. 21, Adelaide Diary of Nagahama, 4 July 1943, op. cit.
BEVEGE, op. cit. p. 150. One exception was the uprising at Cowra Camp in August 1944. But the incident did not affect the Japanese in other camps: the Japanese in Loveday Camp indeed assured the camp authority that they did not follow suit.
Advertiser South Australia, op. cit., p. 10 ’MJ.18518 NAGAHAMA Taichi lending of money to internees,’ 25 August 1943, AA, ’Ref these H Q memo 8267 of 21 Aug 43,’ 10 November 1943, AA, D1901 N2781, Nagahama to Onoue, 16 November 1943, ibid.
’Ref. this H Q memo 10044 of 10 Nov 43’, 28 January 1944, ibid.
DAWS, G. 1994. Prisoners of the Japanese: POWs of World War II in the Pacific, pp.
307 314, William Morrow and Company, Inc., New York Advertiser South Australia, op. cit., p. 25 ’War Diary of Intelligence Summary, 14CD Loveday camp,’ 30 May 1945, AA, AWM52, 8 7 42, ’War Diaries, Loveday Internment Group, 1943 1946’, Australian ’Coroners ACT, 1935, South Australia,’ date unknown, AA, A518 1 BM836 1, ’New ’War Diary of Intelligence Summary, 14CD Loveday camp,’ 24 October 1944, op. cit.
’Tatura Internment Group Routine Orders No. 294. Part I,’ 21 October 1945, AA, AWM52, 8 7 43, ’Tatura Internment Group, 1944 1947’, Australian War Memorial, ’Interviews with Japanese internees at no. 4 camp, Tatura’, 23 July 1946, AA, A367 C72533, ’ASANUMA Ichimatsu’, Canberra Morel to Evatt, 5 February 1945, AA, A1066 IC45 16 2 2, ’International co- operation communications with enemy countries. Japanese occupied territories.
’Interviews with Japanese internees at no. 4 camp, Tatura’, 22 July 1946, AA, A367 The Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs, London to Prime Minister’s Department, Canberra, 22 July 1943, AA, A1608 1 AF20 1 1 Part 2, ’Prime Minister’s Department War Records prisoners of war Part 2’, Canberra Memorandum for the camp commandant, Loveday, S.A., 8 February 1946, AA, A1066 4 IC45 1 11 5, ’Internees in Australia Japanese. Release’, Canberra. Some petitions of ex-residents in Australia to release in Australia are kept in the same file.
Nominal roll: internees marched out to Tatura Internment Group, 28 February 1946, AA, AWM52, 8 7 42, ’War Diaries, Loveday Internment Group, 1943 1946’, ’Order for repatriation under Regulation 20C of the National Security Regulations,’ Minister of State for Immigration, 23 February 1946, AA, A437 46 6 72, ’Japanese Internees a Release in Australia b Deportation Part 1’, Minister for Immigration to Attorney-General, March 1946, ibid.
Col. Lloyd to Attorney-General, 24 January 1946, ibid.
’Interview with Japanese internees,’ 22 July 1946, AA, A367 C72533, ’ASANUMA Ichimatsu’; C72534, ’HAGIWARA Hikota’; C72537, ’IKEZAKI Tokuyoshi’; C72538, ’I ZUMI Eikichi’; C72539, ’ENDO Shigetaro’; C72540, ’KIMURA Hideichiro’, C72546, ’K IKUCHI Ichisuke’; C72587, ’SASAKI Hikokichi’ and C72588, ’MURAKAMI Heijiro’, Browne to the Secretary of the Department of External Territories, 23 August 1946, AA, A373 1 11505 48, ’Japanese internees’, Canberra ’Case No. 91. KIMURA Hideichiro,’ date unknown, ibid.
Secretary of the Department of External Territories to the Director-General of Secretary of the Pacific Territory Association to Minister of External Affairs, 18 August 1945, AA, A518 1 BB836 2, ’New Guinea miscellaneous use of Japanese Secretary of the Department of External Territories to the Director-General of Security, 25 September 1946, op. cit.
Interview by the author with the descendants of Ikesaki, Kikuchi, Asanuma, Izumi, Endo, Nakamura, Murakami and Tanaka families, December 1993 to March 1994, Browne to Secretary of Attorney-General’s Department, 2 October 1946, AA, A373 Ibid.; Murray to Secretary of Attorney-General’s Department, 20 February 1947, IWAMOTO : The Pacific War in Relation to Japanese Settlers in Papua and New Guinea ’Japanese Internees Ex-islands’, 5 September 1947, AA, A472 W32123, ’Re- admission of Japanese to Papua-New Guinea Island Group and related area’, Canberra Browne to Secretary of Attorney-General’s Department, 5 March 1947; Murray to Secretary of Attorney-General’s Department, 20 February 1947, AA, A373 1 11505 ’Re Return to the Territory of Japanese Internees’ by Phillips, 12 January 1948, Notes taken from telephone conversation with the Assistant Secretary of the Department of External Territories for inclusion in a Minute to the Minister for External Territories, 29 September 1947, ibid.
Browne to Colonel Griffin, 15 April 1947, ibid.
’New Guinea Japanese Internees,’ 1 August 1947, AA, A437 46 6 72, op. cit.
Chambers to the cabinet, 6 January 1949, AA, A6006 1 2nd CHIFLEY NOV.46 Interview by the author with Uradok elder from Matupi, a tour guide for Japanese veterans , 17 January 1994, Rabaul, PNG; only two graves were not thrown into the sea and are now kept in the Kokopo Museum.
Chambers to the cabinet, 6 January 1949, op. cit.
Interview by the author with the descendants of Ikesaki, Kikuchi, Asanuma, Nakamura, Endo and Izumi, January to March 1994, PNG and Australia Interview by the author with Ehret, Gordon, 22 March 1994, Brisbane, Ibid. Ehret was sobbing when he was telling this to the author. He now has very good relations with Asanuma’s sons in Brisbane who migrated to Australia.
Interview by the author with Pearse, Dick agent of customs in Manus , 14 February 1994, Lorengau, Manus, PNG Chambers to the cabinet, 6 January 1949, op. cit.
Territory of Papua Report 1945 1946, p. 13, Canberra Territory of Papua Report 1946 1947, p. 14, Canberra Interview with Tanaka, Mary, op. cit.
Interview by the author with Murakami, Kalo son of Murakami Heijiro , 4 January ’War damage to property regulations: claims of Taichi Nagahama, D.J. Hill, Delegate of the Controller of Enemy Property,’ 11 September 1961, AA, A1379 EP J 851 Sect O, ’Taichi Nagahama & Others. Claim on Aliens Compensation Fund’, Canberra A letter from Nagahama Fusae to Kosaka Zentaro 1960, possession of Nagahama Fusae, Amakusa, Kumamoto, Japan A letter to the author from Hatamoto Otosaku, 26 May 1993 Asanuma, Ikesaki and Nakamura re-married in Japan.
Oral evidence collected by the author, December 1993 to March 1994, PNG and Interview by the author with Peter Ikesaki Interview with Nakamura, op. cit.; the author also inquired to the Japanese Embassy in Port Moresby about the compensation but have not received a reply, either.


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