Caffeine Caffeine is unusual in that it is a widely consumed foodstuff, but it is also a drug (that is not currently banned). In fact it is the most widely consumed drug in the world, being found in plant extracts of coffee beans, tea leaves, cocoa beans, cola nuts. It is also added to some soft drinks and medications. L-Carnitine The dietary supplement L-carnitine often known as the ‘energy nutrient’ is very popular amongst people who exercise or who use it for weight management purposes or who take it for beneficial effects on heart health. Indeed, L-Carnitine is also used variously by vegetarian’s elderly; infants and women during pregnancy such is its universal appeal. So there is good logic to support the use of both supplements synergistically providing that there is a shared purpose for this. The b metabolic bullet supports sound scientific based ideas and provides a unique dietary supplement to combine caffeine and carnitine to achieve a synergy of benefits for enhancing exercising performance, cognitive functioning, and more effective weight loss gains and for optimising metabolism. Caffeine and performance It is without doubt that caffeine can have a positive effect on exercise performance and in a wide range of sporting situations, e.g. in power events lasting as short as 60 s and endurance events lasting as long as 3 hrs. The mechanism(s) by which caffeine achieves its positive performance effects is not wholly clear, but, given the widely differing demands of the sporting conditions it is known to positively affect; it is likely to be the result of a combination of several of its known physiological actions. For example, caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant and as a result improves alertness, reaction times and attention, which could clearly improve performance in a number of different sporting conditions. Caffeine also stimulates the liberation of fat from our body fat stores (biolysis), which results in the sparing of muscle and liver carbohydrate stores during prolonged exercise, thereby improving endurance performance. Perhaps of importance to repeated sprint type activities, caffeine is known to facilitate calcium release and re-uptake by muscle, thereby improving contraction function. Finally, caffeine is known to influence the cardiovascular system by increasing blood pressure. Muscle carnitine and performance The body’s carnitine store is found almost exclusively in skeletal muscle, where it plays an essential role in the transport of fat into our mitochondria so it can then be used for energy production. The muscle total carnitine pool is about 25 mmol/kg dry muscle, and this pool is known to be important in dictating the proportions of fat and carbohydrate used by muscle for energy production during exercise. In particular increasing carnitine in muscle enhances fat burning up to medium intensity exercise levels and cuts lactic accumulation significantly at high intensity activity. Despite many claims to the contrary, neither oral nor intravenous L-carnitine administration by itself increases skeletal muscle carnitine content by a measurable amount in humans with normal muscle carnitine content. This is because carnitine is transported into skeletal muscle against a considerable concentration gradient, such that it prevents muscle carnitine transport and storage. The vast majority of studies in which muscle carnitine has been measured support this stance. For example, feeding 2 g/day of L-carnitine for 3 or 6 months or administering a 30 mg/kg body mass intravenous L-carnitine bolus failed to increase muscle carnitine content or improve exercise capacity in healthy human subjects. Furthermore, studies that have reported positive effects of L-carnitine supplementation on muscle metabolism have simply not measured muscle carnitine content, leading to questions being raised regarding the validity of the findings. It is clear therefore that if an increase in muscle carnitine content is to be achieved, then an alternative strategy to simply ingesting L-carnitine is required. Optimising Caffeine intake & muscle carnitine retention Caffeine seems to be most effective when consumed as pure caffeine, rather than coffee. Following ingestion, almost 100% is absorbed, and it can be detected in the blood stream within 5 min, although it usually takes about 1 hour to peak in concentration. It is sensible therefore to consume caffeine approximately 1 hour before competition. Amounts of 2 to 3 milligrams per kilogram bodyweight have been shown to optimise performance. The magnitude of the performance effects of caffeine will vary from person to person (e.g. habitual caffeine intake, weight, body size, metabolic rate, hydration and what you have eaten recently will all affect the level of caffeine in the body.) and on how much has been ingested. Its effects however can be expected to last for between 3 to 10 hours and will be the same for males and females. It is now known that insulin has a potent stimulatory effect on carnitine accumulation in human muscle. The elevation of blood insulin to a physiologically high concentration will augment muscle carnitine accumulation by more than 15%. Therefore, ingesting caffeine and L-carnitine in combination with B metabolic technology will significantly increase the synergistic effect of combining caffeine intake and carnitine accumulation. Until now no supplement in the world contained the correct efficacious and palatable mix of ingredients to bring about the dual performance effects of combining caffeine and carnitine. BULLET TECHNOLOGY DRINK Our liver carbohydrate store is broken down continuously (even when we rest) to maintain our blood glucose levels, and therefore the ingestion of BULLET 1-3 hours before undertaking exercise will ensure that liver glycogen levels are 'optimal' prior to exercise, mental attributes are maximised through optimal stimulation of the central nervous system and metabolism primed for enhanced fat burning and maximal performance. Scientific References Arenas, J., Ricoy, J.R., Encinas, A.R., Pola, P., D'Iddio, S., Zeviani, M., Didonato, S., and Corsi, M. 1991 Carnitine in muscle, serum, and urine of nonprofessional athletes: effects of physical exercise, training, and L-carnitine administration. Muscle Nerve 14, 598-604. Brass, E.P., Hoppel, C.L., and Hiatt, W.R. (1994) Effect of intravenous L-carnitine on carnitine homeostasis and fuel metabolism during exercise in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther 55, 681-692. Casey A., Constantin-Teodosiu D., Howell S., Hultman E. and Greenhaff P.L. Creatine ingestion favourably affects performance and muscle metabolism during maximal exercise in humans. Am. J. Physiol. 271: E31-E37, 1996. Fritz, I.B., and McEwen, B. (1959) Effects of carnitine on fatty-acid oxidation by muscle. Science 129, 334-335. Roepstorff, C., Halberg, N., Hillig, T., Saha, A.K., Ruderman, N.B., Wojtaszewski, J.F., Richter, E.A., and Kiens, B. (2005) Malonyl-CoA and carnitine in regulation of fat oxidation in human skeletal muscle during exercise. Am J Physiol 288, E133- E142.
Stephens, F.B., Constantin-Teodosiu, D., Laithwaite, D., Simpson E.J., and Greenhaff P.L. Insulin stimulates L-carnitine accumulation in human skeletal muscle. FASEB J. (2005) 20: 377-9. van Loon, L.J., Greenhaff, P.L., Constantin-Teodosiu, D., Saris, W.H., and Wagenmakers, A.J. (2001) The effects of increasing exercise intensity on muscle fuel utilisation in humans. J Physiol 536, 295-304.
Wächter, S., Vogt, M., Kreis, R., Boesch, C., Bigler, P., Hoppeler, H., and Krähenbühl, S. (2002) Long-term administration of L- carnitine to humans: effect on skeletal muscle carnitine content and physical performance. Clin Chim Acta 318, 51-61. Graham T.E. Canadian J. Applied Physiology, 2001, 26 Suppl: S103-19. Graham T.E. Sports Medicine, 2001, 31: 785-807. Spriet L.L. International J. Sport Nutrition, 1995, 5 Suppl: S84-99.
Variation of agronomic traits of potato somaclones produced by meristem culture Viive Rosenberg*, Marje Särekanno, Katrin Kotkas, Virge Vasar, Ann Ojarand Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Plant Biotechnological Research Centre EVIKA. Saku, Teaduse 6A, Harjumaa, 75501, Estonia Abstract Following a thermotherapy virus eradication procedure potato plantlets were multiplied as
Gabapentin in the Treatment of TIMOTHY S. CAREY, MD, MPH JOHN W. WILLIAMS, JR., MD, MHS Mental Illness: The Echo Chamber JOHN M. OLDHAM, MD, MS FRANCINE GOODMAN, PharmD, BCPS of the Case Series LEAH M. RANNEY, PhD LYNN WHITENER, DrPH, MSLS LAURA C. MORGAN, MA CATHY L. MELVIN, PHD, MPH Background. Bipolar disorder is a common and debilitating psychiatric illnes