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Microsoft word - tag_2004-1.doc

Database documentation: tag
K. A. Mackay & B. A. Wood
Contents
Database documentation series . 4
2
Tagging Programmes. 4
Sources of tagging data .4
Data loading and validation.5
3
Data structures . 6
Table relationships .6
Database design .9
Handling orphan tag return records .11
Multiple releases and returns .11
Tagging programme requirements and user-defined fields .11
4
Table summaries . 12
5
tag tables . 13
Table 1: t_project .13
Table 2: t_releases.15
Table 3: t_returns .19
Table 4: t_catch .22
Table 5: t_lfreq .23
Table 6: t_tag_types .24
6
tag Business Rules. 25
Introduction to business rules .25
Summary of rules .26
7
Acknowledgements. 32
8
References . 32
Appendix 1 – Reference code tables . 33
List of Figures
Figure 1 : Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) of the tag database. . 6
Figure 2 : Expanded ERD of the t_releases and t_returns tables. 8
table, changed comment on t_releases.weight to kg from g, D Fisher’s instruction. reflect the length of some previously increased character data types, and existing but unlisted additional attributes. Database documentation series

The National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) currently carries
out the role of Data Manager and Custodian for the research data owned by the
Ministry of Fisheries (MFish).
The Ministry of Fisheries data set incorporates historic research data, data collected
more recently by MAF Fisheries prior to the split in 1995 of Policy to the Ministry of
Fisheries and research to NIWA, and currently data collected by NIWA and other
research providers for the Ministry of Fisheries.
This document provides an introduction to the tag survey database tag, and is a part
of the database documentation series produced by NIWA. It supersedes the previous
documentation by Wood (1993) on this database.
All documents in this series include an introduction to the database design, a
description of the main data structures accompanied by an Entity Relationship
Diagram (ERD), and a listing of all the main tables. The ERD graphically shows how
all the tables fit in together, and their relationships to other databases.
This document is intended as a guide for users and administrators of the tag database.
Access to this database is restricted to nominated personnel as specified in the
Schedule 6 of the current Data Management contract between the Ministry of
Fisheries and NIWA. Any requests for data should in the first instance be directed to
the Ministry of Fisheries.
2 Tagging
Programmes
Sources of tagging data
Tagging programmes have been used to provide information on fish and fisheries in New Zealand for many years. Many of these programmes are described in a variety of publications, with summaries of tagging programmes carried out in New Zealand included in Crossland (1982) and Murray (1990). A wide variety of species have been the subject of such studies, including finfish, squid, shellfish and rock lobsters. To facilitate the storage and access of data collected by a wide range of tagging programmes requires a flexible database structure. This is likely to be more complex than that required for any single programme. A brief overview of some different programmes follows to help illustrate this: 1. The 1980/1981 kahawai programme involved a single target species. The animals were marked and released throughout New Zealand during the two year period. Many were measured when tagged, and samples of animals were also taken to provide additional age/growth information. Only one tag was applied to each animal. Animals were not injected with any biochemical markers. This is an example of a very straightforward tagging programme, intended to provide information on movement, age/growth and relative levels of effort by method and fisher type (recreational/commercial). 2. The co-operative gamefish tagging program is an ongoing tagging programme run by MAF Fisheries in co-operation with the International Game Fishing Association. This programme has several target species, and it is generally not possible to get an accurate length or weight of the animals tagged. This programme is particularly unusual in that there is no single target species. 3. The bluenose tagging programme run off the Wairarapa coast in 1987 does have a single target species. To tag bluenose without damaging them it is necessary to apply the tag to the animals at the depths they are normally found, generally over 200m deep. To do this, baited hook tag tags attached to lines set in appropriate areas were used. Of the baits/tags which were taken from the lines, it is not possible to say what species (or possibly the sea bed) "took" the tags. The actual species tagged cannot be known, except for those tags which were recaptured. 4. A 1987 snapper tagging programme in Tasman Bay had every tenth fish double tagged to help determine the level of tag shedding which occurred. The fish were also injected with tetracycline to assist with age determination upon recapture. 5. Another snapper tagging programme, this time in the Hauraki Gulf during 1994, had snapper tagged with coded wire tags. All landed snapper within a factory were passed through a electronic scanner to detected the tagged fish. Tag numbers were only known at the time of detection, but not release. A known number of snapper were seeded with tags at the factory to calculate the hit rate of the electronic scanner. Data loading and validation

As the data from different tagging programmes has been stored in a variety of formats
prior to the establishment of the tag database, no standard system has been developed
for loading data into the database. Many of the validation rules also vary between
tagging programmes so these also are not implemented on the database as a whole.
Prior to data being loading to the database, for each tagging programme, appropriate
validation rules should be developed and the data checked against these rules.
The referential and range checks listed in the table structures and shown in the Entity
Relationship Diagram are the only validation checks imposed.
structures

3.1 Table
relationships

This database contains several tables. The ERD for tag (Figure 1) shows the physical
data model structure1 of the database and its entities (each entity is implemented as a
database table) and relationships between these tables. Each table represents an
object, event, or concept in the real world that has been represented in the database.
Each attribute of a table is a defining property or quality of the table.
All of the table’s attributes are shown in the ERD. The underlined attributes represent
the table’s primary key2. This schema is valid regardless of the database system
chosen, and it can remain correct even if the Database Management System (DBMS)
is changed.
The primary keys on some of the tables in this database are not implemented as
required for fully normalised relational database design, but approximate this in a
simpler fashion, primarily to facilitate ad hoc queries by users. Individual tagging
programmes can appear to have tables of their own if required, by implementing the
appropriate views on the main tables.
As the primary key for the t_releases and t_returns tables are different for different
tagging programmes, a primary key is not implemented as such on either table.
Most of the tables in the tag database have some attributes, called foreign keys3,
which contain standard NIWA fisheries codes, such as species and stage_meth. These
attributes provide links to tables in the rdb (research database) database, which
contains the definitive list of standard codes. Therefore, an expanded ERD for these
tables will follow (Figure 2).
Section 5 shows a listing of all the tag tables as implemented by the Empress DBMS.
As can be seen in the listing of the tables, a table’s primary key has an unique index
on it. Primary keys are generally listed using the format:
Indices:
UNIQUE index_name ON (attribute [, attributes ]) where the attribute(s) make up the primary key and the index name is the primary key name. Note that the typographical convention for the above (and subsequent) format is the square brackets [ ] may contain an item that is repeated zero or more times. This unique index prevents records with duplicate key values from being inserted into the table, e.g., a new trip with an existing trip code, and hence ensures that every record can be uniquely identified. 1 Also known as a database schema. 2 A primary key is an attribute or a combination of attributes that contains an unqiue value to identify that record. 3 A foreign key is any attribute, or a combination of attributes, in a table that is a primary key of another table. Tables are linked together through foreign keys. Figure 1 : Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) of the tag database.
The tag database is implemented as a relational database. That is, each table is a
special case of a mathematical construct known as a relation and hence elementary
relation theory is used to deal with the data within tables and their relationships
between them. All relationships in tag are of the type one-to-many4. This is shown in
the ERD by connecting a single line (indicating ‘many’) from the child table (e.g.,
t_catch) to the parent table (e.g., t_project) with an arrow-head (indicating ‘one’)
pointing to the parent.
rdb:species_master
Figure 2 : Expanded ERD of the t_releases and t_returns tables.
Every relationship has a mandatory or optional aspect to it. That is, if a relationship is mandatory, then it has to occur at least once, while an optional relationship might not occur at all. For example, in Figure 1, consider that relationship between the table t_project and it’s child table t_catch. The symbol “O” by the child t_catch means that a tag project can have zero or many catch records, while the bar by the parent t_catch means that for every catch record there must be a matching tag project record. 4 A one-to-many relationship is where one record in a table (the parent) relates to one or many records in another table (the child). Most of these tables contain foreign keys, which link these tables to each other and to
tables in the rdb database (Figure 2). The majority of these links are enforced by
referential constraints5. Constraints do not allow orphans to exist in any table, i.e.,
where a child record exists without a related parent record. This may happen when: a
parent record is deleted; the parent record is altered so that the relationship is lost; or a
child record is entered without a parent record. Constraints are shown in the table
listings by the following format:
Referential:

error message (attribute[, attribute]) INSERT|DELETE parent table (attribute[, attribute])
For example, consider the following constraint found in the table t_releases:
Referential:
(tag_type) INSERT t_tag_types (tag_type)
This means that the value of the attribute tag_type in a t_releases record must already
exist in the parent table t_tag_type or the record will be rejected and an error message
will be displayed.
A delete constraint implies that for a record to be deleted from a table, the values of
the constrained attributes must not be equal to the values of the corresponding
attributes in any record of the constraining table. This is used to prevent a parent
record from being deleted while child records still exist.
All tables in this database are indexed. That is, attributes that are most likely to be
used as a searching key have like values linked together to speed up searches. These
indices are listed using the following format:
Indices:
NORMAL (2, 15) index_name ON (attribute[, attribute])
Note that indices may be simple, pointing to one attribute or composite pointing to
more than one attribute. The numbers “…(2, 15)…” in the syntax are Empress
DBMS default values relating to the amount of space allocated for the index.
3.2 Database
The top table shown in the ERD is the t_project table (Table 1). Each record stores information describing a tagging programme undertaken on behalf of the MFish. This information does not necessarily relate to data held in other tables in the database, which enables this table to be used as a reference to tagging programmes which have been carried out, even if the actual tagging data is not stored in the database. This table is uniquely keyed on the proj_id attribute. The second table in the ERD, t_releases (Table 2), relates to actual animals tagged.
Each record represents one animal being marked and released. It is linked to the
project table by the proj_id attribute, and has a primary key of species, tag_type and
tag_no. To enable programme specific data to be stored in a generic database, five
user defined attributes have been implemented. These can each hold up to ten
characters and are used if required. The data stored in these attributes is described in
the appropriate attributes in the project table.
Under normal circumstances, the species attribute in t_releases would be linked to the
definitive list of species codes in the table curr_spp. The curr_spp table itself is a
view containing only valid species code from the master table species_master.
However, because species identification of tagged fish generally come from the public
and commercial fishers, some obsolete species codes are utilised; e.g. a tagged fish
being either a hapuka (HAP) or a bass (BAS), therefore being coded as the obsolete
code HPB. Hence the link for species codes is to the master table species_master.
Information pertaining to returned tags is kept in the t_returns table (Table 3). This is
linked to the project table directly via the proj_id attribute, and to the releases table
via the tag_type and tag_no. (For programmes where animals were double tagged, a
link can also be made using the tag_type2 and tag_no2 attributes). This table also has
five user defined attributes similar to those in the releases table, but for programme
specific recapture or return data.
Some tagging programmes recorded the total catch weight of catches from which
animals were tagged or recaptured. These data are kept in the t_catch table (Table 4),
which is linked to the t_project table by the proj_id attribute, and may be linked to
either the t_releases or t_returns tables by the proj_id and station_code attributes.
In conjunction with the actual tagging of animals, some programmes collected length
frequency data on catches from which animals were tagged. This is stored in the
t_lfreq table (Table 5) and may be independent from data in the t_catch table. Length
frequency data is linked to the t_project table by the proj_id attribute, and may be
linked to either the t_releases, t_returns, or t_catch tables by the proj_id and
station_code attributes.
These last two tables are used for tagging programmes that are not carried out in
conjunction which market or catch sampling programmes. In which cases, such catch
and length frequency data would be held in such databases as market, trawl, scallop,
rlcs, etc.
A description of each type of tag used is kept in the t_tag_types (Table 6) table, along
with a code representing the tag type. The tag type is linked to the t_releases and
t_returns tables by the tag_type (and tag_type2) attributes.
Handling orphan tag return records

In strictly logical terms, a tag return record can not exist with out a matching tag
release. This would normally be enforced by a referential constraint on t_returns
using the attributes proj_id, tag_no and tag_no2. However, the reality is that tags get
damaged resulting in tag numbers becoming partially or wholly illegible and
impossible to be matched against any one release record. In such instances, dummy
release records are inserted into the t_releases table to match the damaged returned
tags.
3.4
Multiple releases and returns

With certain species, such as crayfish, individual tagged animals may be released and
recaptured many times. In such cases, one animal is represented by multiple records
in the t_releases and t_returns tables, each with the same keys proj_id, tag_no, and
tag_no2, but with different release and return dates.
Care, therefore, must be taken when joining t_releases and t_returns using the
proj_id, tag_no, and tag_no2 key, as these cases result in a many-to-many
relationship. The tag database schema appears to fail in these instances as many-to-
many instances can not be resolved by relational theory.
However, by using one of the user-defined fields for a sequential release and return
number, one can resolve this issue. Each time an animal is released, the release
number is incremented by one (first release = 1). Similarly, each time the animal is
recaptured, the return number is also incremented by one. The keys needed to match a
tag return with its appropriate release therefore are: proj_id, tag_no, tag_no2, and
release/return number.
Consult the t_project table for definitions of the user-defined tables.
3.5
Tagging programme requirements and user-defined fields
By in large, the attributes of the main tag tables (t_releases and t_returns) are for the main data items that are common for the majority of tagging programmes. However, each programme has certain data fields that are relevant for that specific programme only. Rather than constantly add attributes to these table when the need arises, this database was created with the flexibility of user-defined fields (rel1 - rel5 and rec1 - rec5 in the t_releases and t_returns tables respectively) that will hold any kind of data. Interpretation of these fields will differ from programme to programme, their usage’s are defined in the t_project table. 4 Table summaries

The tag database has six tables containing tag data. The following is a listing and
brief outline of the tables contained tag:
1. t_project : contains details and descriptions of individual tagging projects,
including definitions of user-defined fields used in the t_releases and t_returns tables. 2. t_releases : contains details of tagged animal releases.
3. t_returns : contains details of tagged animal returns or recaptures.
4. t_catch : contains catch data for some tagging projects.
5. t_lfreq : contains length frequency data for some tagging projects.
6. t_tag_types : contains descriptions of the different types of tags.
5 tag tables
The following are listings of the tables in the tag database, including attribute names,
data types (and any range restrictions), and comments.
5.1
Table 1: t_project

Comment:
Table to hold information relating to individual tagging programmes.
Attributes
Unique identifier to distinguish different specific tagging programmes, otherwise “MIX”. Project code for the tagging programme (if available). The staff member who is the main contact regarding the data. Staff members involved with the tagging programme. States the goals/objectives of the programme. plan or describing data from the programme. the t_release rel1 field. (“not used” if it isn't.) Attributes
Description of the usage of the t_returns.rec1 attribute
Creator:
Referential:
(species) INSERT rdb:species_master (code) Indices:
Table 2: t_releases

Comment:
Table to hold information on individual animals/tags released.
Attributes
Station (or "release site") identifier. Generally either bottom or gear depth as appropriate Generally either bottom or gear depth as appropriate Latitude (as an integer) where release occurred in DDMMmmm format Longitude (as an integer) where release occurred in DDDMMmmm format method of fixing the position. Refer rdb:t_fix_meth_codes Method used to capture the animals to be tagged. Code to describe the first (or only) tag used. mark this animal (or number of first tag if two are used. Attributes
3 char species code. Refer rdb:species_master Time of day (24hr) when release occurred measurement type code. Refer rdb:t_fish_meas_codes measurement type code. Refer rdb:t_fish_meas_codes Sex code: null = not known, 1 = male, 2 = female, 3 = indeterminate or immature, 4 = did not sex 2 character code to describe gonad staging method. Refer Stage of sexual maturity (codes vary by species) User defined field, as defined in t_project table. User defined field, as defined in t_project table. User defined field, as defined in t_project table. User defined field, as defined in t_project table. User defined field, as defined in t_project table. Any text comments on the released animal Creator:

Referential:
(area) INSERT rdb:area_codes (code) (species) INSERT rdb:species_master (code) (tag_type2) INSERT t_tag_types (tag_type) (tag_type) INSERT t_tag_types (tag_type) (proj_id) INSERT t_project (proj_id) invalid gonad stage meth code (stage_meth) INSERT invalid measurement code (lgth_meth) INSERT rdb : t_fish_meas_codes(fish_meas_code) invalid measurement width (width_meth) INSERT rdb : t_fish_meas_codes fish_meas_code) Indices:
NORMAL (2, 15) BTREE releases_species_ndx ON (species) NORMAL (2, 15) BTREE releases_tag_no_ndx ON (tag_no) NORMAL (2, 15) BTREE releases_tag_no2_ndx ON (tag_no2) NORMAL (2, 15) BTREE releases_tag_type_ndx ON (tag_type) NORMAL (2, 15) BTREE releases_proj_id_ndx ON (proj_id) Table 3: t_returns

Comment:
Table to hold information describing recaptured animals or returned tags.
Attributes
Code to link to t_project and t_release tables. Station code as used in t_releases table. Name of vessel where the recapture occurred. Tag type code as defined in t_tag_types table. Describes the "error" in the assigned rec_date. Time of day (24hr) recapture took place (if known) Depth of water OR gear where recapture occurred The direction the recaptured animal traveled. measurement type code. Refer rdb:t_fish_meas_codes measurement type code. Refer rdb:t_fish_meas_codes Sex code: null = not known, 1=male, 2=female, 3=indeterminate
Attributes

2 character code to describe gonad staging Stage of sexual maturity (codes vary by species) Code for method used to recapture the animal. Latitude where animal was recaptured, DDMMmmm format Longitude where animal was recaptured, DDDMMmmm format method of fixing the position. Refer rdb:t_fix_meth_codes Area code from rdb:area_codes where recapture occurred User defined field as defined in the t_project table. User defined field as defined in the t_project table. User defined field as defined in the t_project table. User defined field as defined in the t_project table. User defined field as defined in the t_project table. Name of person who caught/returned the tag Address of person who caught/returned the tag
Creator:
Referential:
(tag_type) INSERT t_tag_types (tag_type) (tag_type2) INSERT t_tag_types (tag_type) invalid gonad stage meth code (stage_meth) INSERT Invalid tag number (proj_id, tag_no, tag_no2) INSERT t_releases (proj_id, tag_no, tag_no2) Indices:
NORMAL (2, 15) BTREE ON (tag_no) NORMAL (2, 15) BTREE ON (tag_no2) NORMAL (2, 15) BTREE ON (proj_id, station_code) Table 4: t_catch

Comment:
Table to store catch data from tagging stations.
Attributes
Valid 3 letter species code. Refer rdb:species_master Weight of sample used for tagging release/return Flag to mark is catch relates to tag releases of returns
Creator:
Referential:
Invalid project id(proj_id) INSERT project (proj_id) (species) INSERT rdb : species_master(code) Invalid area code (area) INSERT rdb:area_codes (code) Indices:
UNIQUE BTREE ON (proj_id, station_code, species) NORMAL (2, 15) BTREE ON (species) Table 5: t_lfreq

Comment:
Table to store length frequency data collected during a tagging programme.
Attributes
Valid 3 letter species code. Refer rdb:species_master Code describing the method used to derive the length Length in cm (to 1 mm as decimal if required) Total of males, females and unsexed animals at this length
Creator:
Referential:
Invalid project id (proj_id) INSERT project (proj_id) (species) INSERT rdb : species_master (code) Indices:
NORMAL (2, 15) BTREE ON (species) UNIQUE BTREE ON (proj_id, species, station_code, lgth) Table 6: t_tag_types

Comment:
Table to identify all different types of tags used.
Attributes

tag_type
Text description of tag type. (Length, colour, etc)
Creator:
Indices:
tag Business Rules
Introduction to business rules

The following are a list of business rules pertaining to the tag database (see Section
2.2 “Data loading and Validation”). A business rule is a written statement specifying
what the information system (i.e., any system that is designed to handle rock lobster
life cycle data) must do or how it must be structured.
There are three recognized types of business rules:
Fact
Certainty or an existence in the information system Calculation employed in the information system Validation
Constraint on a value in the information system Fact rules are shown on the ERD by the cardinality (e.g., one-to-many) of table relationships. Formula and validation rules are implemented by referential constraints, range checks, and algorithms both in the database and during data validation. Because of the generalised nature of the tag database schema, business rules can not be defined for data in the user-defined fields. For such fields, business rules are often specified in the definition fields in the t_project table. Validation rules may be part of the preloading checks on the data as opposed to constraints or checks imposed by the database. These rules sometimes state that a value should be within a certain range. All such rules containing the word ‘should’ are conducted by preloading software. The use of the word ‘should’ in relation to these validation checks means that a warning message is generated when a value falls outside this range and the data are then checked further in relation to this value. Summary of rules
Tagging project details (t_project)
proj_id

Project identifier, must be unique within the tag database. Must be a valid species code as listed in the species_master
table in the rdb database.

proj_code
Project code must be a valid code within the NIWA and/or MFish project management system. The start date of the tagging programme must be a legitimate date. The finish date of the tagging programme must be a legitimate date. Multiple column checks on date:
The start date must not be later than the finish date. Each of the listed area codes must be a valid code as listed in
the area_codes table in the rdb database.

rel1 - rel5}
Must be used to describe what values are being stored in the rec1 - rec5}
user-defined fields in the t_releases and t_returns tables respectively. Default value - “not used”. Tag type details (t_tag_types)
tag_type

Tag release details (t_releases)
proj_id

Project identifier, must be unique within the tag database.
min_depth}
max_depth}
Multiple column checks on depth:
The minimum depth must be less than or equal to the maximum
depth.
Area code. Must be a valid area code as listed in the area_code
table in the rdb database.
Must be a valid latitude ranging from 90 to -90. Must be a valid longitude ranging from 0 to 180. Must be equal to either an “E” or a “W”. Must be a valid gear method code as listed in the meth_codes
table in the rdb database.

tag_type }
Must be a valid tag type code as listed in the t_tag_types table. tag_type2}

species

Must be a valid species code as listed in the species_master
table in the rdb database.

rel_date

rel_time
Must be a valid 24 hour time ranging 0 to 2359.
lgth_meth
Must be a valid fish measurement code as listed in the
t_fish_meas_codes table in the rdb database.

rel_width

width_meth
Must be a valid fish measurement code as listed in the
t_fish_meas_codes table in the rdb database.
Sex code. Must be a valid sex code as listed in the t_sex_codes
table in the rdb database.

stage_meth
Must be a valid gonad staging system as listed in the
t_gon_sys_desc table in the rdb database.
Gonad (or life cycle) stage. Must be a valid code as listed in the
t_gon_stg_meth table in the rdb database.

rel1 - rel5
User defined fields. Descriptions of the fields usage must be listed in the t_project table. Tag return details (t_returns)
proj_id

Project identifier, must be unique within the tag database.
tag_type }
Must be a valid tag type code as listed in the t_tag_types table. tag_type2}
tag_no }
Should match values in the t_releases table (but depends on tag_no2}

rec_date
Must be a valid date on or after the initial release of the tagged animal.
rec_time
Must be a valid 24 hour time ranging 0 to 2359. Should be a valid compass direction involving the characters “N”, “E”, “S”, and “W”; e.g. “ENE”, or an integer representing a valid direction in degrees from 0 to 359.
rec_lgth

lgth_meth
Must be a valid fish measurement code as listed in the
t_fish_meas_codes table in the rdb database.

rec_width

width_meth
Must be a valid fish measurement code as listed in the
t_fish_meas_codes table in the rdb database.

rec_weight
Sex code. Must be a valid sex code as listed in the t_sex_codes
table in the rdb database.

stage_meth
Must be a valid gonad staging system as listed in the
t_gon_sys_desc table in the rdb database.
Gonad (or life cycle) stage. Must be a valid code as listed in
the t_gon_stg_meth table in the rdb database.
Must be a valid gear method code as listed in the meth_codes
table in the rdb database.
Must be a valid latitude ranging from 90 to -90. Must be equal to either an “N” or a “S”.
rec_long
Must be a valid longitude ranging from 0 to 180. Must be equal to either an “E” or a “W”. Must be a valid area code as listed in the area_codes table in
the rdb database.

rec1 - rec5
User defined fields. Descriptions of the fields usage must be listed in the t_project table. Tagging catch details (t_catch)
proj_id

Project identifier, must be unique within the tag database.
station_code
Must be a station code that has been used in either the t_releases or the t_returns table. Must be a valid species code as listed in the species_master
table in the rdb database.
Must be a number greater than 0, and less than or equal to weight.
tag_link
Must be equal to either “releases” or “returns”.
Tagging length frequency details (t_lfreq)
proj_id

Project identifier, must be unique within the tag database.
station_code
Must be a station code that has been used in either the t_releases or the t_returns table. Must be a valid species code as listed in the species_master
table in the rdb database.

meas_meth
Must be a valid fish (animal) measurement method code as
listed in the meas_meth table in the rdb database.
Must be a number greater than or equal to 0. no_f}
no_t}
Multiple column check on no_t, no_m, and no_f
The number in no_t must be equal to or less than the sum of no_m and no_f. 7 Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Dave Banks for his editorial contribution to this
document.
8 References

Crossland, J. 1982: Tagging of marine fishes in New Zealand. Fisheries Research Division Occasional Publication No 33. 19p Murray, T. 1990: Fish-marking techniques in New Zealand. American Fisheries Symposium 7:737--745 Wood, B. A. 1993: Marine Research database documentation. 10. tag. MAF Fisheries Greta Point Internal Report No. 216 13p. Appendix 1 – Reference code tables

Codes for attributes lgth_meth and width_meth from rdb:t_fish_meas_codes
fish_meas_code
Carapace Length - Orbit to Carapace notch (scampi) Tip of snout to posterior end of dorsal fin (Ghost sharks) Orb Length - length across the eye (billfish) Carapace Length - Base of antennal platform to posterior margin Tail Width - as legally defined for red rock lobsters Tail Length - as legally defined for red rock lobsters stage_meth codes and associated stage codes from rdb: t_gon_stg_meth stage_meth stage Spent female, with infertile/unhatched eggs visible Codes for attribute pos_meth from rdb:t_fix_meth_codes fix_meth_code description 01

Source: http://www.fish.govt.nz/NR/rdonlyres/962CFEA5-1A44-4FD0-A45F-CBC5D17DAF39/1494/researchdatabasedocumentationtag.pdf

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The Truth About Abstinence-Only Programs Accurate, balanced sex education – including information about contraception and condoms – is a basic human right of youth. Such education helps young people to reduce their risk of potentially negative outcomes, such as unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Such education can also help youth to enhance the quality of their

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