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Wissenschaftl. studien aminosäuren

Wissenschaftliche Studien zur
Wirkungsweise von Aminosäuren
für Arthrose und Osteoporose
1. Amman, Laib, Bonjour et al. (2002): Dietary essential aminoacid supplements increase tue bone mass & bone microarchitecture in an isocaloric low-Protein diet. Bone Mineral Research 2002 2. Wil iams, J.Z., Abumrad, N. & Barbul, A. (2002): Effect of a Specialized Amino Acid Mixture on Human Col agen Deposition. Annals of Surgery, Volume 236, issue 3, (pp. 369 - 375). 3. Harrington, W. F. & von Hippel, P. (1961): The structure of col agen and gelatin. Advanced Protein Chemistrym issue 16, (pp. 1 - 138) 4. Ahmed, H.H., El-Aziem, S.H.A., Abdel-Wahab, M.A. (2008): Potential of cysteine and me- thionine in the protection against hormonel imbalance and mutagenicity induced by furazoli- done. Toxicology, Volume 243, isuue 1-2, (pp. 31-42) 5. De Paz Lugo, P. (2006): Estimulaciòn de la Sintesis de Colàgeno en Cultivo Celulares - Posible Tratamiento de Enfermedades Degenerativas Medianta la Dieta. Editorial de las Univsersidad de Granada, Granada. 6. Torricelli, P., Fini, M., Giavaresi, G. Giardino, R. (2003): Human Osteopenic Bone? Derived Osteoblasts: Essential Amino Acids Treatment Effects Artificial Cells. Blood Substitutes and Biotechnology, Vol. 31, issue 1, (pp.35-46) 7. Visser, J.J. & Hoekman, K. (1994): Arginine supplementation in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Med Hypthesis, Volume 43 (pp. 339 -342) 8. Sul indor-Ma, M. Ivy, C.L., Isenhart, A.C. (2008): Nutrition and Supplements for Pain. Management Contemporary Pain Medicine (pp. 417 - 445) www.greenforce.cc
für das Immunsystem
1. Barbul, A., Lazarou, S.A., Efron, D.T., Wasserkrug, H.L. & Efron, G. (1990): Arginine enhances wound healing and lymphocyte immune responses. Humans Surgery, Volume 108, issue 2, (pp. 331- 336) 2. Helen, A., Krishnakumar, K., Vijayammal, P.L. & Augusti, K.T. (2003): A Comparative Study of Antioxidants S-Allyl Cysteine Sulfoxide and Vitamin E on tue Damages Induced by Nicotine. Pharmacology, Vol. 67, issue 3, (pp. 113 - 117) 3. Palloshi, A., Fragasso, G., Piatti, P., Monti, L.D. et al. (2004): Effect of Oral L-arginine on Blood Pressure and Symptoms and Endothelial Function in Patients wich Systematic Hyper- extension, Positive Exercise Tests, and Normal Coronary Arteries. The American Journal of Cardiology, Volume 93 (pp. 933 - 935) 4. Bowtell, J. L., Gelly, K., Jackman, M.L. et al. (1999): Effect of oral glutamine on whole body carbohydrate storage during recovery from exhaustive exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, Volume 86, issur 6, (pp. 1770 - 1777) 5. Kasai, K., Kobayashi, M. & Shimoda, S.I. (1978): Stimulatory effect of glycine on human growth hormone secretion. Metabolism, Clinical and Experimental, Volume 27, issue 2, (pp. 201 - 208) 6. Castell, L. M., Newsholme E.A. (1998): Glutamine and the effects of exhaustive exercise upon the immune response. Can Journal Physiol Pharmacol 76: pp. 524-532 7. Dröge, W., Eck, H.P., Gander, H., Mihm S. (1991): Modulation of lymphocyte functions and immune responses by cysteine and cysteine derivates. Am J Med 91: pp. 140S - 144S (suppl 3C) 8. Barbul, A., Sisto, D. A., Wasserkrug, H.L., Efron, G. (1981): Arginine stimulates immune response in healthy human beings. Surgery 90: p. 244 9. Barbul, A., Wasserkrug, H.L., Yoshimura, N. Tao, R., Efron, G. (1984): High arginine levels in intravenous hyperalimentation abrogate post-traumatic immune supression. Journal Of Surgical Research 36: P. 620ff 10.Castell, L.M., Poortmans, J.R., Newsholme, E.A. (1996): Does glutamine have a role in reducing infections in athletes? Eur J Appl Physiol 73: pp. 488-490 www.greenforce.cc
für Anti-Aging
1. Curthoys, N. P. & Watford, M. (1995): Regulation of Glutaminase Activity and Glutamine Metabolism. Annual Review of Nutrition, Volume 15, (pp. 133 - 159) 2. Wu, G.A.B., Meininger, C.J., Knabe, D.A., Baze, F.W.A. & Rhoads, J.M. (2000): Arginine nutrition in development, health and disease. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Meta- bolic Care, Volume 3, issue 1, (pp. 59-66) 3. Welbourne, T.C. (1995): Increased plasma bikarbonate and growth hormone after an oral glutamine load. The American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 61, issue 5, (pp. 1058- 1061) 4. Wil iams, J.Z., Abumrad, N. & Barbul, A. (2002): Effect of a Specialized Amino Acid Mix- ture on Human Col agen Deposition. Annals of Surgery, Volume 236, issue 3, (pp. 369-375) 5. Zeibig, J., Karlic, H., Lohninger, A., Dumsgaard, R. & S.: (2005): Do Blood Cel s Mimic Gene Expression Profile Alterations Known to Occur in Muscular Adaption in Enduranced Training? European Journal of Applied Physiologics, issue 95, (pp. 96 - 104) 6. Haneke, E. & Baran, R. (2011): Micronutrients for Hair and Nails Nutrition. Healthy skin, Volume 2, (pp. 149-163) 7. Alonso, L. & Fuchs, E. (2006): The hair cycle. Journal of Cell Science, issue 119 (pp. 391-393) 8. Kirk, S.J., Hurson, M.,C. et al. (1993): Arginine stimulates wound healing and immune function in elderly human beings. Surgery 114: 155-160 9. Hurson, M., Regan M.C., Kirk, S.J., Wasserkrug, H.L., Barbul, A. (1995): Metabolic effects of arginine in a healthy elderly Population. JPEN Journal Parenter Enteral Nutrition 19(3): pp. 227-230 10. Freyssenet, D., Berthon, P., Denis, C. et al. (1996): Effect of a 6-week-endurance Training programme and branched-chain amino acid supplementation on histomorphometric characteristics of aged human muscle. Archive Physiol Biochem 104: pp. 157-162 www.greenforce.cc
für Stimmung, Schlaf und Lebensfreude
1. Young, L.S., Bye, R., Scheltinga, M., Ziegler, T.R. et al. (1993): Patients Receiving Glutamine-Supplemented Intravenous. Feedings Report an Improvement in Mood Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, Volume 17, Issue 5, (pp. 422 - 427) 2. Hasler, G., Van der Veen, J.W., Tumonis, T. et al. (2007): Reduced Prefrontal Glutamate/ Glutamine an -Aminobutyric Acid Levels in Major Depression Determined Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Archives of General Psychiatry, Volume 64, issue2, (pp. 193-200) 3. Hertz, L., Kvamme, E., McGeer, E.G., & Shousboe, A. (1983): Glutamine, Glutamate, and Gaba in tue Central Nervous System. Alan R Liss Inc., New York 4. Lavie, L., Hafetz, A., Luboshitzky, R. & Lavie, P. (2003): Plasma levels of nitric oxide and L-arginine in sleep apnea patients. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, Volume 21, issue 1, (pp. 57-63) 5. Yamadera, W., Inagawa, K., Chiba, S., Bannai, Takahashi, M. & Nakayama, K. (2007): Glycine ingestion improves subjektive sleep quality in human volunteers, correlating wich Polysomnographic changes. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, Volume 5, issue 2, (pp. 126-131) 6. Arwert, L.I., Deijen, J.B. & Drent, M.L. (2003): Effects of an oral mixture containing glycine, glutamine and niacin on memory, GH and IGF-I secretion in middle-aged and elderly subjects. Nutritional Neuroscience, Volume 6, issue 5, (pp. 269-275) 7. Ohtsuka, Y., Nakaya, J. (2000): Effect of oral Administration of L-arginine on senile dementia. Am J Med, Volume 108, (p.439) 8. Giovanni, R., Forti, P., Maioli, F., Muscari, A. et al. (2003): Homocysteine and cognitive function in healthy elderly community dwel ers in Italy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 77, Issue 3, (pp. 668-673) 9. Soulairac, A., Lambinet, H. (1977): Effect of 5-hydroxytryptophan, a serotonin precursor, on sleep disorders. Ann Med Psychol 1: pp. 792-798 10. Wyatt R.J., Zarcone, V., Engelmann, K. et al. (1971): Effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan on the sleep of normal human subjects. Electroencephalography Clin Neurophysiol 30: p. 505 www.greenforce.cc
für Fettverbrennung und Abnehmen
1. Rudman, D., Feller, A.G., Kohn, L., Shetty, K.R., Rudman, I.W. & Draper, M.W. (1991): Effects of human growth hormone on body composition. Hormon research, Volume 36 Supplement 1, (pp. 73-81) 2. Merimee, T.J., Lil icrap, D.A. & Rabinowitz, D. (1965): Effect of arginine on serums-Levels of human growth-hormone. Lancet, volume 2, issue 7414. (pp. 668-670) 3. Wil iams, J.Z., Abumrad, N. & Barbul, A. (2002): Effect of a Specialized Amino Acid Mixture on Human Collagen Deposition. Annals of Surgery, Volume 236, issue 3, (pp. 369-375) 4. Kasai, K., Kobayashi, M. & Shimoda, S.I. (1978): Stimulatory Effekt of glycine on human growth hormone secretion. Metabolism, Clinical and Experimental, Volume 27, issue 2, (pp. 201-208) 5. Prada, P.O., Hirabara, S.M., de Souza, C.T., Schenka, A.A. et al. (2007): L-Glutamine supple- mentation induces insulin resistance in adipose tissue and improves insulin signal ing in live and muscle with diet-induced obesity. Diabetologia, Volume 50, issue 9, (pp. 149-159) 6. Chang, TW. (1978): Leucine inhibits oxidation of glucose and pyruvate in skeletal muscle during fasting. J Biol Chem. 253 (10): (pp. 3696-3701) 7. Ceci, F., Cangiano, C. et al. (1989): The effects of oral 5-hydroxytryptophan administration on feeding behavior in obese adult female subjects. Journal Neural Transm 76(2): pp. 109-117 8. Cangiano, C. et al. (1992): Eating behavior and adherence of dietary prescriptions in obese adult subjects treated with 5-hydroxytryptophan. Am J Clin Nutr 56(5): pp. 863-867 9. Elam, R.P., Hardin D.H., Sutton, R.A., Hagen, L. (1989): Effects of arginine and ornithine on strength, lean body mass and urinary hydroxyproline in adult males. Journal Sports Med Phys Fitness; 29(1): 52-6 10. Jacobsen, B. (1990): Effect of amino acids on growth hormon release. Physician Sportsmed; 18(1): pp. 63-70 www.greenforce.cc
für Potenz und Libido


1. Chen, I., Wol man, Y., Chernichovsky, T., Iaina, A., Sofer, M. & Matzkin, H. (2001):
Effect of oral administration of high-dose nitric oxide donor l-arginine in men with organic
erektile dysfunction: results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-control ed study.
BJU International, Volume 83, issue 3, (pp. 269-273)
2. Wolf, A., Zalpour, C., Theilmeier, G., Wang, B.Y., Ma, A., et al. (1996): Dietary L-Arginine
Supplementation Normalizes Platelet Aggregation in Hypercholesterolemic Humans.
Clinical
Studies, The American Col ege of Cardiology
3. Moody, J.A., Vernet, D., Laidlaw, S., Rajfer, J. & Gonzalez-Cadavid, F. (1997): Effects of
long-term oral administration of L-arginine on the erectile response. The Journal of
Urology,
Volume 158, (pp. 942-947)
4. Chauhan, A., More, R.S., Mul lins, P.A., Taylor, G., Petch, M.C. & Schofield, P.M. (1996):
Aging-Associated Endothelial Dysfunction in Humans is Reversed by L-Arginine. Journal of
American College of Cardiology, Volume 28, issue 7, (pp. 1796-1804)
5. Palloshi, A., Fragasso, G., Piatti, P., Monti, L.D. et al. (2004): Effect of Oral L-arginine on
Blood

Pressure and Symptoms and Endothelial Function in Patients with Systemic
Hypertension,
Positive Exercise Tests, and Normal Coronary Arteries. The American Journal of
Cardiology,
Volume 93 (pp. 933-935)
6. Wu, G.A.B., Meininger, C.J., Knabe, D.A., Baze, F.W.A. & Rhoads, J.M. (2000):
Arginine nutrition in development, health and disease. Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care,
Volume3, issue 1, (pp.59-66)
7. Aydin, S., Inci, O., Alagol, B. (1995): The role of arginine, indomethacin and kal ikrein in
the treatment of oligoasthenospermia. Int Urol Nephrol 27(2): 199-202
8. Damrau, F. (1962): Benign prostatic hypertrophy: amino acid therapy for symptomatic
relief.

J Am Geriatric Soc 10(5): pp. 426-430
9. Smith, S.D., Wheeler, M.A. et al. (1997): Improvement in interstitial cystitis symptom scores
during treatment wich oral L-arginine. Journal Urol 158: pp. 703-708
10. Cartledge, J. Minhas, S., Eardley I. (2001): The role of nitric oxide in penile erection.
Expert Opin Pharmacother 2(1): pp. 95-107
www.greenforce.cc
für die sportliche Leistungsfähigkeit

1. Walsh, N.P. et al. (1998): The effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise on the plasma
concentration of glutamine and organic acids. Eur J Appl Physiol 77: pp. 434-438
2. Maughan, R.J., Sadler, D.J. (1983): The effects of oral administration of salts of aspartic
acid on the metabolic response to prolonged exhausting exercise in man. Int J Sports Med
4: pp. 119-123
3. Tuttle, J.L., Potteiger, J.A., Evans, B.W. et al. (1995): Effect of acute potassium-magnesium
aspartate supplementation on ammonia concentrations during and after resistance
training.

Int J Sport Nutr 5: pp. 102-109
4. De Haan, A., van Doorn, J.E., Westra, H.G. (1985): Effects of potassium + magnesium
aspar-

tate on muscle metabolism and force development during short intensive static exercise.
Int J Sports Med 6: pp. 44-49
5. Van Hall, G., Saris, W.H., van de Schoor, P.A., Wagenmakers, A.J. (2000): The effect of
free glutamine and peptide ingestion on tue rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis in man.
Int J Sports Med 21(1): pp. 25-30
6. Bowtell, J.L., Gelly, K., Jackman, M.L., Patel, A., Simeoni, M., Rennie, M.J. (1999):
Effect of oral glutamine on whole body carbohydrate storage during recovery from
exhaustive exercise. J Appl Physiol 86(6): pp. 1770-1777
7. Blomstrand, E., Hassmen, P., Ekblom, B. et al. (1991): Administration of branched-chain
amino acids during sustained exercise-effects on performance and on plasma concentration
of some amino acids. Eur J Appl Physiol 63: pp. 83-88
8. Suminski, R.R., Robertson, R.J., Goss, F.L. et al. (1997): Acute effect of amino acid ingestion
and resistance exercise on plasma growth hormone concentration in young men. Int J Sport
Nutr 7: pp. 48-60
9. Jacobsen, B. (1990): Effect of amino acids on growth hormone release. Physician
Sportsmed
18(1): pp. 63-70
10. Elam, R.P., Hardin, D.H., Sutton, R.A., Hagen, L. (1989): Effects of arginine and ornithine
on
strength, lean body mass and urinary hydroxiproline an adelt males. J Sports Med Phys
Fitness.
29(1): 52-6
www.greenforce.cc
für die Ausdauerleistungsfähigkeit
1. Madsen, K., MacLean, D.A., Kiens, B. et al. (1996): Effects of glucose, glucose plus branched-chain amino acids, or placebo on bike performance over 100km. J Appl Physiol 81: pp.2644-2650 2. Schena, F., Guerrini, F., Trenaghi, P. et al. (1992): Branched-chain amino acid supplementation during trekking at high altitude. The effects on loss of body mass, body composition, and muscle power. Eur J Appl Physiol 65: pp. 394-398 3. Davis, J.M., Welsh, R.S., De Volve, K.L., Alderson, N.A. (1999): Effects of branched-chain amino acids and carbohydrate on fatigue during intermittent, high-intensity running. Int J Sports Med 20: pp. 309-314 4. Vukovich, M.D., Sharp, R.L., Kesl, L.D. et al. (1997): Effects of low-dose amino acid supplement on adaptations to cycling training in untrained individuals. Int J Sport Nutr 7: pp.298-309 5. Hassmèn, P., Blomstrand, E., Ekblom, B., Newsholme, E.A. (1994): Branched-chain amino acid supplementation during 30-km competitive rund: mood and cognitive performance. Nutrition 10: pp. 405-410 6. Colombani, P.C., Bitzi, R., Rindova, P., Frey, W., Arnold, M. et al. (1999): Chronic arginine aspartate supplementation in runners reduces total plasma amino acid level at rest and during a marathon run. Eur J Nutr 12,38: 6, 263-270 7. Schmidt, P., Gleispach, H., Wolf, W., Pressenhofer, H., Schwaberger, G. (1980): Leistungsbeeinflussung und Stoffwechselveränderungen während einer Langzeitbelastung unter Argininaspartat. Leistungssport 6: 486ff. 8.Wesson, M., McNaughton, L., Davies, P. et al. (1988): Effects of oral administration of aspartic acid salts on the endurance capacity of trained subjects. Res Quart Exer Sport 59: pp. 234-236 9. Reynolds, J.V., Daly, J.M., Zhang, S., Evantash, E. et al. (1988): Immunomodolatory mechanisms of arginine. Surgery 104(2): pp. 142-151 10. Hagan, R.D., Upton, S.J., Duncan, J.J. et al. (1982): Absence of effect of potassium-magnesium aspartate on physiologic responses to prolonged work in aerobical y trained men. Int J Sports Med 3: pp. 177-181 www.greenforce.cc
für Mirgräne und Kopfschmerz
1. Kimball, R.W., Friedmann, A.P., Vallejo, E. (1960): Effect of serotonin in migraine patents. Neurology 10: pp. 107-111 2. Maissen, C.P., Ludin, H.P. (1991): Comparison of the effect of 5-hydroxytryptophan and pronatrolol in the interval treatment of migraine. Schweiz Med Wochenschrift 121: pp. 1585-1590 3. Nicolodi, M., Sicuteri, F. (1996): Fibromyalgia and migraine, two faces of the same mechanism. Serotonin as the common clue for pathogenesis and therapy. Adv Exp Med Biol 398: 373-379 4. Titus, F., Davalos, A., Alom, J, Codina, A. (1986): 5-Hydroxitryptophan versus methysergid in the prophylaxis of migraine. Randomized clinical trial. Eur Neurol 25: pp. 327 - 329 5. Bono, G., Criscuoli, M., Martignoni, E. et al. (1982): Serotonin precursors in migraine prophylaxis. Adv Neurol 33: pp. 357 - 363 6. Longo, G., Rudoi, I., Iannucelli, M. et al. (1984): Treatment of essential headache in develop mental age with L-5-HTTP. Cross oder double-blind study versus placebo. Pediatr Med Chir 6: pp. 241 -245 7. De Benedittis, G., Massei, R., (1985): Serotonin percursors in chronic primary headache. A double-blind cross-oder study wich L-5-hydroxytryptophan vs. placebo. J Neurosurg Sci 29: pp. 239 - 248 www.greenforce.cc

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Doi:10.1016/j.medengphy.2006.10.013

ARTICLE IN PRESS Medical Engineering & Physics xxx (2006) xxx–xxxPhotoacoustic monitoring of the absorption ofF.L. Dumas , F.R. Marciano , L.V.F. Oliveira , P.R. Barja , D. Acosta-Avalos a Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento (IP&D), Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, CEP 12244-000, S˜ao Jos´e dos Campos, SP, Brazil b Centro Brasileiro de Pes

Emergency diagnosis and treatment of amphibian diseases

EMERGENCY DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF AMPHIBIAN DISEASES © Copyright Paul Rust A very special thank you to Bruce Maclean, DVM THE SYMPTOMS LISTED IN THIS ARTICLE COULD BE INDICATORS OF A MUCH WORSE UNDERLYING PROBLEM. THE TREATMENTS ARE INTENDED FOR EMERGENCY USE TO STABILIZE YOUR ANIMAL UNTIL IT CAN BE SEEN BY AN AMPHIBIAN MEDICAL SPECIALIST. THIS IS NOT INTENDED TO

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