• International Prostate Symptom Score
over the age of 50 is an enlarged prostate. (IPSS) or AUA Symptom Index — a short
this problem. By age 85, the number climbs
or enlarged prostate and how often theyoccur.
Due to the prostate’s location, benignenlargement may result in obstruction of
• Urinalysis — a laboratory test of your
urine performed to rule out the presence
prostate is to produce fluid that aids in
semen. While its growth is thought to be an abnormal part of aging, the exact cause
• Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Blood Test— used to help rule out prostate cancer as the cause of your symptoms. Risk Factors
PSA is a protein produced by cells in theprostate, and the level of this protein is
• Heredity — A family history of BPH
If the results of these tests suggest that you
examinations to help confirm the diagnosisand determine the severity of the condition. Symptoms
• Urinary flow study — This measures the
• Imaging tests — Ultrasound may be
• A feeling of incomplete bladder emptying
for prostate stones, kidney stones orobstructions or a tumor.
• Cystoscopy — A cystoscope (a thin tube
containing a lens with a light system) is
• Getting up frequently at night to urinate
inserted into the urethra so the doctor can detect problems, including prostate
• A urinary stream that starts and stops
enlargement or the development of stonesin your bladder.
• Urodynamic studies — Your doctor may
• Acute urinary retention (inability to
suspects your symptoms might be relatedto a bladder problem or a neurological
Post-void residual volume test — Ultrasound Detection and Diagnosis
imaging is used to determine whether youcan empty your bladder.
Your doctor may perform some or all of the following tests to confirm or rule out the presence of BPH or enlarged prostate.
• Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) —
Usually, this is the first test performed. During the examination, the doctor insertsa gloved and lubricated finger into the rec-tum to feel the prostate. This examinationallows the doctor to get a general idea ofthe size and condition of your prostate.
Treatment Options Minimally Invasive Office Procedures — Surgery — For most men with very enlarged
When medications don't solve the problem,
prostates, surgery can relieve symptoms, but
there are both risks and benefits with each
Medications — Several drugs are FDA-
doctor's office. These procedures use various
types of heat energy to shrink a portion of
• TURP (transurethral resection of the
the prostate and are very effective. prostate): This is the most common
blockers and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors.
Each works differently. They either shrink
• Interstitial Laser Therapy (ILT): Causes
considered to bring the greatest reduction
the enlarged prostate or stop the prostate
a coagulative necrosis below the urethral
surface that allows for less obstruction
is pressing against the urethra is removed
to allow urine to flow easily. The procedure
receptors. Men are given local anesthesia
involves an electrical loop that cuts tissue
for the procedure. This procedure involves
• Alpha Blockers: These drugs don't reduce
passing a cystoscope through which a laser
the size of the prostate, but they can relieve
fiber is inserted and used to puncture the
as it is less traumatic than open surgery
prostate. Once in the prostate, laser energy
muscles around the bladder neck, so urine
destroy the tissue to shrink the gland.
to have retrograde ejaculation afterwards.
There is very little bleeding or recovery
This is a condition in which a man ejaculates
treatment is the rule, and may last for a
through the urethra. Retrograde ejaculation
generally isn't painful. It shouldn't be an
Flomax (tamsulosin), Uroxatral (alfuzosin),
issue unless fertility is a concern. Other
Hytrin (terazosin), and Cardura (doxazosin).
• TUMT (transurethral microwave ther-
possible side effects: blood loss requiring
Alpha blockers were originally created to
motherapy): This therapy reduces urinary
transfusion, painful urination, recurring
treat high blood pressure; dizziness is the
frequency, urgency, straining and intermit-
urinary tract infections, bladder narrowing
most common side effect; other side effects
tent flow, but does not correct any bladder-
generally are mild and controllable.
and frequent urinary tract infections.
• TUIP (transurethral incision of the
doctor's office and requires only topical
prostate): This procedure involves making
• 5-Alpha Reductase Inhibitors: These
anesthesia and pain medications. Possible
side effects: painful urination for several
prostate tissue. These cuts reduce pressure
by reducing levels of the male hormone —
on the urethra, making urination easier.
of urination also are possible. There may
take longer to work than alpha blockers.
relief is slower with TUIP, compared with
with their symptom relief from this. Also,
reduce risk of acute retention (inability to
retrograde ejaculation is less common and
urinate) — and also reduce the need for
• TUNA (transurethral radio frequency
less severe than after TURP. Risk of erectile
needle ablation): This procedure also
destroys prostate tissue to improve urine
• Greenlight Laser Surgery: This procedure
(finasteride) and Avodart (dutasteride).
Possible side effects: erection problems,
radiowaves transmitted by needles inserted
destroy prostate tissue. It is done under
directly into the prostate (local anesthesia
is used). The procedure does not require
stay at the hospital. It provides immediate
side effects are generally mild and may go
painful, urgent or frequent urination for
or after the first year of taking the drugs.
In general, this procedure causes lessblood loss, and side effects can includeretrograde ejaculation.
• Open Prostate Surgery (Simple Insurance Prostatectomy): When a transurethral
(which requires an incision in the abdomen)
insurance plan, in advance, to make sure.
remove tissue in the prostate. Open prosta-tectomy typically is done when the prostate
Schedule an Appointment
gland is greatly enlarged, when there isbladder damage, if there are bladder stones
To schedule a consultation with a urologist
at GW Hospital and determine if you suffer
from an enlarge prostate, please call 1-888-
anesthesia, and recovery can take a fewweeks to several months. Side effects aresimilar to TURP, including blood lossrequiring a transfusion, urinary inconti-nence, erection problems and retrogradeejaculation. Prevention Although you cannot prevent the prostate from enlarging over the course of time, you can take measures to reduce your symptoms:
• Limit your intake of liquids in the evening,
especially drinks containing alcohol andcaffeine. Cutting back helps to minimizethe number of times you have to urinateduring the night. (Also, drinking too muchalcohol may irritate the bladder or prostate. Most experts recommend that men avoidmore than two alcoholic drinks a day.)
• Ask your doctor whether you can change
or eliminate medications that may beaggravating the problem. These medica-tions include antihistamines, diuretics,decongestants, antispasmodics, tranquilizersand certain types of antidepressants. Thesecan weaken the bladder muscle or narrowthe opening of the prostate.
time to empty your bladder completely.
900 23rd St., NW Washington, DC 20037 (202) 715-4000www.gwhospital.com
DECLARACIÓN DE LIMA PARA PREVENIR, COMBATIR Y ELIMINAR EL TERRORISMO Los Ministros de Estado y los Jefes de Delegación de los Estados miembros de la Organi-zación de los Estados Americanos (OEA), reunidos en Lima, Perú, del 23 al 26 de abril de 1996, en ocasión de la Conferencia Especializada Interamericana sobre Terrorismo, CON FUNDAMENTO en los principios y propósitos consagrados