3/2. Multiple Choice The following questions have one or more correct answers. Use the notations given below:A: only the 1st , 2nd and 3th are correct B: only the 1st and 3th are correct C: only the 2nd and 4th answers are correct D: only the 4th answers is correct E: all of the answers are correct 131. Choose the compounds whose UV spectra display a significant shift upon alkalization. 132. In water content determinations with the Karl Fischer method, biamperometric end-point detection is most frequently used. Which statements apply to this type of measurements?
1) A double platinum electrode is immersed into the cell. 2) The electrodes are polarized with a 10-50 mV potential difference. 3) While water is present in the solution, it reacts with the titrant and current does not flowthrough the cell. 4) The current flowing through the cell is registered as a function of the titrant consumption. 133. Which of the following statements relating to the Karl Fischer method are correct?
1) It is based on the following reaction: I2 + SO2 + H2O = 2 HI + SO3. 2) It can be used for the determination of water content of solvents. 3) It is applicable for the simultaneous measurement of the moisture and crystal water contents of active ingredients. 4) During its application, biamperometric end-point detection is prescribed in the Pharmacopoeia.
134. Choose the correct statements.
1) This apparatus is used for the assay of organic arsenic compounds. 2) Arsenic impurity produces a yellow to brown colouration in the apparatus. 3) Arsenic impurity is detected in the form of As2S3 in the apparatus. 4) Between the reagent tube and the tailpiece tube, a filter paper impregnated with HgBr2 solution is placed in order to detect the arsenic impurity.
135. Which statements are true for glacial acetic acid as a non-aqueous solvent?
1) The strengths of organic acids dissolved in it increase. 2) The strengths of bases dissolved in it increase and the difference between them decreases. 3) Sulphuric acid behaves as a bivalent acid in glacial acetic acid medium. 4) Perchloric acid behaves as a strong acid in glacial acetic acid medium. 136. Which of the following inorganic drugs are practically insoluble in water? 137. Aqueous solutions of which compounds become pink or red on the addition of phenolphthalein as indicator?
1) Natrii metabisulfis2) Natrii sulfas3) Ammonii bromidum4) Kalii hydrogenocarbonas 138. The colours of which compounds change on heating in a Bunsen flame?
1) Magnesii oxidum2) Zinci oxidum3) Barii sulfas139. Which of the following compounds give a positive Fehling reaction?
1) lactose2) mannitol3) fructose4) sorbitol
140. Which of the following statements relating to glycerol are true?
1) It is a tertiary alcohol containing three carbon atoms. 2) On heating with potassium hydrogensulphate, acrolein is formed with a pungent smell. 3) Its D and L isomers are the basic compounds in the designation of the relative configuration in the Fischer projection. 4) It is miscible in all proportions with water.
141. Which of the following compounds are soluble in water?
1) Sorbitolum2) Cholesterolum3) Nicotinamidum4) Benzocainum142. Which of the following drugs contain a chiral carbon atom? 143. Which of the following statements are correct?
1) The partition coefficient is the activity ratio of a substance in two immiscible solvents. 2) The partition coefficient does not depend on the concentration of the substance. 3) In the calculation of partition coefficients, activities can be replaced by concentrations in the case of dilute solutions. 4) The higher the partition coefficient, the more lipophilic the substance is. 144. What data are needed to calculate the proportion of the protonated (receptor) form of monovalent weak base-type drugs?
1) logP (partition coefficient)2) pH (that of the given environment)3) Mr (relative molar mass)4) pKa (ionization constant)
145. Choose the correct statements. The isoelectric point of an amphoteric molecule is …
1) the pH at which the substance has the lowest water solubility. 2) the pH at which the substance has the lowest lipophilicity. 3) the pH at which the substance has the highest lipophilicity. 4) the pH at which the substance has the highest water solubility.
146. Choose the correct statements relating to drugs.
1) Drugs establish molecular contact with the organism. 2) Vaccines are regarded as drugs. 3) Preparations used for the alleviation of the symptoms of diseases are regarded as drugs. 4) Only those preparations are regarded as drugs which are used to treat the human organism. 147. Which of the following substances are prodrugs?
1) enalapril2) fluphenazine decanoate3) levodopa4) captopril
148. What are the aims of the production of prodrugs?
1) the formation of better pharmacokinetic properties 2) masking the unpleasant taste of a drug 3) the formation of a prolonged effect 4) the formation of a better pharmacodynamic effect
149. Which of the following substances may be donor compounds in the reactions of a phase II metabolism?
1) glucuronic acid2) acetyl coenzyme A3) glutathione4) glucose-6-phosphate
150. Which of the following compounds are not dicarboxylic acids?
1) citric acid2) caproic acid3) propionic acid4) tartaric acid
151. Which of the following terms and symbols denote types of tautomerism?
1) Z — E2) enol — oxo3) cis — trans4) lactam — lactim
152. Which of the following compounds are enantiomers?
1) E-cinnamic acid Z-cinnamic acid2) R-proline S-proline3) L-tartaric acid meso-tartaric acid4) (+)-naproxen ()-naproxen
153. Complete the following sentence with the correct words. A) and B) are .
1) conformers. 2) diastereomers. 3) epimers. 4) tautomers. 154. Which of the following compounds are original Hungarian developed drugs?
1) selegiline2) pipecuronium bromide3) drotaverine4) bencyclane
155. Which of the following properties are characteristic of inhalation narcotics?
1) low molecular mass2) volatility 3) absence of polar functional groups 4) high lipophilicity
156. Which of the following statements are not true for ketamine?
1) It is an inhalation narcotic. 2) It contains a moderately strong basic centre. 3) It has low lipophilicity. 4) It is an optically active molecule.
157. Which of the following statements are not true for propofol?
1) It is a fast-acting injection anaesthetic. 2) It contains a phenolic hydroxyl group and is therefore soluble in acid. 3) It is sensitive to oxidization. 4) It can be determined by non-aqueous acidimetric titration.
158. Which of the following statements relating to barbiturates are false?
1) Barbituric acid displays lactam-lactim tautomerism. 2) Barbiturates used in therapy can be argento-alkalimetrically titrated in pyridine. 3) Barbituric acid possesses four dissociable hydrogens, and therefore has an acidic character. 4) Enol-oxo tautomerism is characteristic of 5,5-disubstituted barbiturates. 159. Which of the following statements relating to the structure-activity relationships of barbiturates are correct?
1) Two lipophilic substituents are necessary at position 5 for hypnotic activity. 2) Replacement of oxygen by sulphur at position 2 increases the duration of action. 3) N-methyl substitution decreases the duration of action. 4) There cannot be unsaturated bonds in the C5 substituents. 160. Which of the following structural modifications result in a decrease in the duration of action of barbiturates?
1) N-methyl substitution. 2) Insertion of two identical substituents on C5. 3) Oxo → thioxo substitution on C2. 4) Insertion of a phenyl group on C5. 161. Which of the following statements relating to the structure-activity relationships of anxiolytic 1,4-benzodiazepines are correct?
1) The presence of an aromatic substituent at position 5 is necessary for the activity. 2) The presence of a nitro group at position 7 is essential for the activity. 3) The presence of an electron-withdrawing group at position 7 is necessary for the activity. 4) The presence of an alkyl substituent at position 3 is necessary for the activity. 162. Which of the following structural elements are found in the zopiclone molecule?
1) a pyrazine ring2) a piperazine ring3) a pyridine ring4) an imidazole ring
163. Which of the following reactions cannot be applied to differentiate morphine from codeine and ethylmorphine?
1) The Calmberg-Husemann reaction. 2) On the addition of FeCl3 to its aqueous solution, a blue colour develops. 3) The Marquis reaction. 4) When its solution is heated with KH(IO3)2, the colour turns brown.
164. Which of the following statements relating to the structure of morphine are correct?
1) Its basic skeleton is a pentacyclic 4,5-epoxymorphinane. 2) It contains 5 chirality centres. 3) It is an amphoteric molecule. 4) The plane of its C and D rings is perpendicular to the plane produced by the other three rings, and therefore a T-shaped molecule is produced.
165. Which of the following statements relating to morphine are not correct?
1) It contains an acidic phenol functional group. 2) It has an amphoteric character. 3) It contains several asymmetric centres.
166. Which of the following statements relating to morphine derivatives are correct?
1) Saturation of the C7=C8 double bond increases the analgesic and antitussive activity. 2) Ethylmorphine is the 3-ethyl ester of morphine. 3) A cyclopropylmethyl substituent on the nitrogen atom causes an antagonistic effect. 4) Lipophilicity decreases on etherification of the phenolic OH. 167. Which of the following sentences are correct?
1) The analgesic activity of methadone derivatives is equal to or exceeds that of morphine. 2) Methadone contains a chiral carbon atom. 3) Methadone can be titrated with perchloric acid in glacial acetic acid. 4) Methadone contains a quaternary carbon atom.
168. Which structural elements are found in loperamide?
1) a secondary amino group 2) a chiral carbon atom 3) a piperazine ring 4) a tertiary alcoholic hydroxyl group
169. Which of the following tricyclic structures form the nucleus of neuroleptic (major tranquilizer) drugs? 170. Which are the characteristic N10 side-chains of neuroleptic phenothiazines?
1) β-phenylethyl 2) aminoethyl 3) piperidinyl 4) dimethylaminopropyl
171. Which of the following statements relating to phenothiazine derivatives are correct?
1) They are sensitive to oxygen and light. 2) They form complexes due to their electron pair donor atoms. 3) They have high lipophilicity. 4) The nitrogen in the side-chain can be either aliphatic or saturated heterocyclic.
172. Which of the following statements relating to the structure-activity relationships of phenothiazines are correct?
1) The steric structure has no importance as concerns the neuroleptic activity. 2) The distance between the nitrogen atoms in the side-chain and the ring must be 3 carbon atoms. 3) The aliphatic or alicyclic environment of the nitrogen in the side-chain has no influence on the activity of phenothiazines. 4) Increasing electron-withdrawing ability of the C2 substituent enhances the neuroleptic activity. 173. Which of the following statements relating to neostigmine are false?
1) Neostigmine is a phenolic ester. 2) It contains a quaternary nitrogen atom. 3) During its alkaline hydrolysis, dimethylamine is formed. 4) It is an indirect parasympatholytic drug.
174. Which of the following statements are correct? Ephedrine …
1) is a phenylalkanolamine. 2) forms a violet complex with copper(II) sulphate in alkaline medium. 3) contains two chirality centres. 4) and Ψ-ephedrine are diastereomers. 175. Which of the following functional groups are found in adrenaline?
1) a tertiary aliphatic amine 2) a phenolic hydroxyl group 3) a primary aliphatic amine 4) a secondary aliphatic amine
176. Which of the following groups belong among the sympathomimetics on the basis of their chemical structures?
1) dihydroxyphenylethylamines 2) phenylethylamines 3) 4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole derivatives 4) aryloxyalkanolamine derivatives
177. Which of the following compounds are amide-type local anaesthetics?
1) lidocaine2) tetracaine3) bupivacaine4) benzocaine
178. Which of the following statements are correct? Benzocaine .
1) is an amide-type local anaesthetic. 2) forms a diazonium salt with nitrite in acidic medium. 3) is freely soluble in water. 4) hydrolyses to p-aminobenzoic acid during its metabolism.
179. Which of the following statements are correct? Cocaine .
1) contains a 3-benzoyloxy group in an axial position. 2) is a diester derivative of ecgonine. 3) is a meso-type, optically inactive compound. 4) contains an 8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane skeleton.
180. Local anaesthetics have characteristic structural elements. Which of the following statements are false?
1) A lipophilic (aromatic) part, an intermediate chain and a hydrophilic dialkylamine group are usually found in their molecules. 2) The lipophilic aromatic and the hydrophilic amine parts are always attached to an ester bond. 3) The nitrogen in the hydrophilic part can be in a heterocyclic ring. 4) Drugs of carboxamide type are used only as antiarrhythmics due to their high stability.
181. Which of the following statements relating to the digitalis glycosides are false?
1) Their basic structure can be derived from 5β-gonane. 2) The condensed rings are annelated in the cis-trans-trans position. 3) Sugar molecules are connected to the aglycone through a glycosidic bond at position C3. 4) The polarity of the lanata glycosides is higher than that of the corresponding purpureaglycosides.
182. Which of the following statements relating to the compounds with the following general structure are correct?
1) This is the general structure of the 1,4-dihydropyridine group of Ca2+ channel blockers. 2) R1 and R2 are always the same. 3) R3 is an electron-withdrawing substituent. 4) R1 must not be the same as R2.
183. Which of the following statements relating to the compounds with the following general structure are false?
1) If R1 and R2 are not the same, the compound will be chiral. 2) R3 can be a nitro group or a chlorine atom. 3) They contain a 1,4-dihydropyridine skeleton. 4) The nitrogen atom in the ring has a basic character.
184. Which of the following statements relating to ACE inhibitors are correct?
1) Captopril has an acidic character and is a small polar molecule. 2) Enalapril is the bioactive form of enalaprilate, formed by the hydrolysis of an ester group. 3) Lipophilicity is increased by the phenylethyl group in the side-chain. 4) They bind to the Zn2+ of angiotensin-converting enzyme through an ionic bond.
185. Which of the following statements relating to ACE inhibitors are correct?
1) Enalapril is an amphoteric molecule due to its carboxyl group and secondary amino group. 2) Enalaprilate is the bioactive form of enalapril, formed by the hydrolysis of an ester group in the organism. 3) The proline skeleton is substituted with other heterocycles (e.g. tetrahydroisoquinoline or benzazepine) in the structure of third-generation compounds. 4) They bind to angiotensin-converting enzyme through an ionic bond, a H-bond and dative bonds.
186. Which of the following statements relating to the compounds with the following general structure are correct?
1) Fibrates belong among the antihypertensive drugs. 2) They are phenoxy-isobutyric acid derivatives with antihyperlipidemic activity. 3) In clofibrate, R1 = Cl, R2 = H. 4) If R2 ≠ H, it will be a prodrug.
187. Which of the following structural modifications enhance the anabolic effect of androgens?
1) incorporation of a fluoro atom at position 9α2) incorporation of a 1,2-double bond3) 19-nor derivatization 4) incorporation of cis-annelated A/B rings in the molecule
188. Which of the following statements are true? Conversion of the open-chain and cyclic forms of aldosterone into each other …
1) is an equilibrium process. 2) is a condensation reaction. 3) is a hemiacetal formation reaction. 4) results in the formation of enantiomers.
189. Which of the following statements relating to estradiol are true?
1) The C17 α-configuration epimer is the eutomer. 2) Esterification of the 17-hydroxyl group results in a prolonged effect. 3) The estrogenic activity of estradiol is lower than that of estrone. 4) Alkyl (alkynyl) substitution on C17 results in orally administrable estradiol derivatives.
190. Which of the listed inorganic compounds official in the Pharmacopoeia are antacid compounds?
1) hydrated aluminium oxide 2) disodium phosphate 3) sodium hydrogencarbonate 4) sodium sulphate
191. Which of the following statements are true?
1) D-glucose and L-glucose can be distinguished with the Fehling reaction. 2) Lactose contains a lactone ring. 3) The reducing sugars do not contain a free alcoholic hydroxyl group. 4) Mutarotation of monosaccharides lasts until the development of ring-chain tautomeric equilibrium.
192. Which of the following structural elements are found in granisetron?
1) a keto group 2) the tropane skeleton 3) a benzimidazole ring 4) a basic nitrogen
193. Which of following statements are true?
1) The chemical name of bitter salt is sodium sulphate decahydrate. 2) On intensive heating, potassium perchlorate decomposes to potassium chloride and oxygen. 3) Iodine dissolves in oxygen-containing solvents to give a violet colour. 4) On warming, the colour of the iodine-starch complex disappears. 194. Which of the following statements relating to the structure of insulin are correct?
1) It contains a shorter and a longer polypeptide chain, which are connected by disulphide bridges. 2) It exists as a monomer in aqueous solution. 3) It is an amphoteric molecule. 4) Its water solubility is best at its isoelectric point.
195. Which of the following amino acids in the insulin chain have free functional groups (not bound in a peptide linkage) causing the acidic character of the insulin molecule?
1) arginine2) glutamic acid3) lysine4) tyrosine
196. Which of the following amino acids in the insulin chain have free functional groups (not bound in a peptide linkage) causing the basic character of the insulin molecule?
1) histidine2) lysine3) arginine4) tyrosine
197. Which of the structures below are xanthine derivatives used as drugs and official in the Pharmacopoeia? 198. Which of the following statements relating to the xanthine derivatives official in the Pharmacopoeia are false?
1) Caffeine does not form a precipitate with silver nitrate. 2) Their group reaction is the murexide test. 3) Theophylline and theobromine can be titrated as acids in non-aqueous medium.
4) All of them are amphoteric molecules. 199. Which of the following statements are equally true for caffeine, theobromine and theophylline?
1) They are 3-methyl-substituted purine derivatives. 2) Their aqueous solutions are slightly acidic. 3) They contain a weakly basic nitrogen atom. 4) Lactam-lactim tautomerism is possible in the molecule.
200. Which of the following statements relating to hydrochlorothiazide are correct?
1) It is a sulfonamide-type diuretic. 2) It is a saluretic. 3) It is a diprotic acid. 4) It does not dissolve in water.
201. Which of the following compounds are prodrugs? 202. Which of the following statements relating to paracetamol are true?
1) It is an aniline derivative. 2) Hydrolysis of its sodium salt makes the solution alkaline. 3) Its hepatotoxic metabolite is formed. 4) It is freely soluble in water.
203. Which of the following statements relating to phenylbutazone is true?
1) It is a CH acid. 2) Hydrolysis of its sodium salt makes the solution alkaline. 3) It exists in keto-enol tautomeric forms in aqueous solution. 4) It exists as a mesomer anion in alkaline solution.
204. Which of the following structural elements are found in meloxicam?
1) sulfonamide2) amide3) thiazole4) enol ether
205. Which of the following statements are true? The common structural characteristics of C4-aminopyrazolone derivatives are …
1) a dihydropyrazolone ring with aromatic character. 2) susceptibility to oxidation. 3) light sensitivity. 4) C4-substitution with bromine. 206. Which of the following statements relating to indometacin are true?
1) It contains an indole skeleton. 2) Rotation around the amide bond is hindered. 3) The 2-methyl group facilitates the formation of an active „cis” conformation of the compound.
4) It is an amphoteric compound. 207. Which of the following statements are the characteristics of the acid strength of salicylic acid?
1) It is a weaker acid than acetylsalicylic acid. 2) It is a stronger acid than benzoic acid. 3) It is a weaker acid than p-hydroxybenzoic acid. 4) It is the strongest monohydroxy-substituted benzoic acid derivative.
208. Which of the following statements are true? The common structural elements of anti-inflammatory steroid derivatives are …
1) the 17β-(2-hydroxyacetyl) side-chain. 2) the Δ4-3-keto molecule unit. 3) the 11-oxo or -hydroxy substitution. 4) the trans-anellated B/C and C/D rings. 209. Which of the following statements relating to vitamins are not correct?
1) The human organism is not able to synthetize them. 2) They are essential in tiny amounts for the normal function of the organism. 3) The basis of their classification is their solubility in water or in fat. 4) Tocopherol is a member of the vitamin B family. 210. Which of the following statements relating to the chemical structure of vitamin A1 (retinol) are correct?
1) Two double bonds are found in its β-ionone ring. 2) The terminal functional group of the chain is -CH2OH. 3) Its configuration at position 11 is cis. 4) It has an all-trans configuration. 211. The chemical name of Cholecalciferolum (Ph) is (+)-(5Z,7E)-9,10-secocholesta- 5,7,10(19)-trien-3β-ol. Which of the following statements are true?
1) The molecule is levorotatory. 2) The C5-C6 double bond has a Z, and the C7-C8 double bond has an E configuration. 3) The hydrogen on C3 is in the β position. 4) The steroid skeleton is open between C9 and C10. 212. Which of the following statements are correct?
1) Ergocalciferol is formed when ergosterol is irradiated with UV light. 2) 3 new double bonds are formed in the above reaction (point 1). 3) The above reaction (point 1) is a ring-opening transformation of ergosterol. 4) Cholecalciferol is the bioactive form of ergocalciferol. 213. Which of the following statements are true?
1) Retinol (vitamin A1) is a diterpene derivative containing a primary alcoholic hydroxyl group. 2) Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) is a 9,10-secosteroid derivative. 3) Folic acid (vitamin B9) contains a p-aminobenzoic acid structural element. 4) Thiamine base formed in alkaline aqueous solutions of thiamine chloride (vitamin B1) can be extracted into apolar organic solvents.
214. Which of the following statements relating to riboflavin (vitamin B2) are true?
1) It is a component of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). 2) Its imino-hydrogen on position 3 has an acidic character. 3) It contains an isoalloxazine skeleton. 4) A D-ribitol substituent derived from D-ribose is attached to its nitrogen.
215. Which of the following statements relating to the minor analgesic salicylates are false?
1) Acetylsalicylic acid is not administered orally due to its gastric mucous membrane irritating property. 2) Acetylsalicylic acid hydrolyses rapidly to salicylic acid in the organism. 3) The absorption of acetylsalicylic acid from the stomach is unfavourable, since it occurs mainly in ionized form at the pH of the stomach. 4) Salicylates have three characteristic activities: analgesic, antipyretic and antirheumatic. 216. Which of the following compound types belong among the non-steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs?
1) anthranilic acid derivatives 2) 1,4-dihydropyridines 3) arylacetic acid derivatives4) 1-imidazoline derivatives
217. Which of the following sentences are correct?
1) Salicylic acid can be determined by acid-base titration. 2) Due to its ortho-hydroxyl group, salicylic acid is a stronger acid than benzoic acid. 3) The characteristic impurity in salicylic acid is phenol. 4) Salicylic acid gives a flesh-coloured precipitate with Fe(III) ions. 218. Which of the following are common properties of aminophenazone and metamizole sodium?
1) They readily hydrolyse in both acidic and basic media. 2) They can be oxidized. 3) They impart a permanent yellow colour to the flame. 4) They are sensitive to light.
219. Which of the following are characteristics of indometacin?
1) The free carboxyl group is essential for its biological activity. 2) It is an amphoteric compound. 3) It is a lipophilic and water-insoluble compound. 4) It is a phenylacetic acid derivative.
220. Which of the following structural elements are important as concerns the receptorbinding of antihistamines?
1) aromatic rings 2) an alcoholic hydroxyl group 3) a protonated aliphatic amino group 4) a bulky alkyl group
221. Which of the following structural elements are characteristics of antihistamines? 222. Which of the following statements relating to the chemotherapeutic sulphonamides are true?
1) They are amphoteric compounds. 2) They are p-aminobenzenesulfonamide derivatives. 3) They are competitive antagonists of p-aminobenzoic acid in the synthesis of folic acid in bacteria. 4) They contain a primary aliphatic amino group. 223. Which of the following statements relating to chloramphenicol are false?
1) It contains two chiral carbon atoms. 2) It is a geminal dihalogen derivative. 3) Its sodium hemisuccinate ester is soluble in water. 4) Its palmitate ester is soluble in water.
224. Which of the following statements relating to the penicillin derivatives are correct?
1) They contain a thiazolidine ring. 2) The syntheses of semisynthetic penicillin derivatives start from 6-aminopenicillanicacid. 3) They contain a β-lactam moiety. 4) The basic skeleton is a dipeptide.
225. Which of the following statements relating to cephalosporins are correct?
1) They contain no chiral centres. 2) They contain a β-lactam moiety. 3) They contain a thiazolidine ring. 4) Their stability is higher than that of penicillins.
226. Which of the following statements relating to streptomycin are correct?
1) Streptomycin is an antibiotic of aminoglycoside type. 2) Its aglycon is streptidine. 3) The name of the sugar moiety connected to the aglycon is streptobiosamine. 4) Dihydrostreptomycin is formed on reduction of the formyl group of L-streptose to an alcoholic hydroxyl group.
227. Which of the following statements are characteristics of the tetracycline antibiotics?
1) They are amphoteric compounds. 2) Their skeleton is an angularly condensed tetracycle.
3) Their basicity centre is the N atom of a dimethylamino group. 4) The formation of epitetracyclines does not involve a reduction of the effect.
228. Which of the following statements relating to benzalkonium chloride and the invert soaps with similar structure are not true?
1) They are surface-active compounds. 2) They can be used for the microbiological stabilization of nasal and eye drops. 3) They contain a positively charged nitrogen atom. 4) Normal soaps increase their antibacterial effect.
229. Which of the following statements are characteristics of the modern, broad-spectrum quinolone carboxylic acids with antibacterial activity?
1) They contain several phenolic hydroxyl groups. 2) They contain a fluoro atom on the aromatic ring. 3) All of them are optically active compounds. 4) They contain a basic, nitrogen-containing, cyclic substituent.
230. Which of the following statements are correct? Metronidazole …
1) can be titrated as a base in non-aqueous medium. 2) is a nitroimidazole derivative. 3) is an active drug against anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. 4) is a nitrofuran derivative.
231. Which of the following statements relating to the polyene macrolide antibiotics are true?
1) The greater the number of double bonds in the molecule, the higher the bathochromic shift in the UV spectrum is. 2) They are very soluble in water and are easily absorbed. 3) They have an antifungal effect. 4) They have an antibacterial effect.
232. Which of the following statements relating to acyclovir are true?
2) It is mainly active against the herpesvirus family. 3) The phosphorylated derivative of acyclovir is the active molecule. 4) It inhibits the construction of DNA by building into the DNA chains.
233. Which of the following statements relating to epervudin are true?
1) The molecule contains a ribose unit. 2) The molecule has an antiviral effect. 3) The molecule is a strong reducing agent. 4) The molecule contains a modified uracil.
234. Which of the following structural elements are found in methotrexate?
1) a purine skeleton 2) a glutamic acid unit 3) a quinoline ring4) a p-aminobenzoic acid unit
235. Which of the following statements relating to the anticancer cyclophosphamide are true?
1) During its effect, the phosphoramide moiety builds into the place of phosphates of the DNA chain. 2) The chloroethyl groups react and connect into the bases of DNA. 3) The molecule is stable in alkaline medium, but it immediately decomposes after acidification. 4) During its effect, the molecule is first activated through several steps.
236. Which of the following statements relating to vancomycin antibiotic are true?
1) It is a glycopeptides-type antibiotic. 2) It acts through the inhibition of bacterial cell wall biosynthesis. 3) It forms a complex with the D-alanyl-D-alanine moiety of bacterial peptidoglycan. 4) It contains only aliphatic side-chain amino acids.
237. Which of the following statements relating to β-lactams are true?
1) They are cyclic amides. 2) They contain a four-atom ring. 3) They have a stretched structure. 4) They contain a carbonyl group.
238. Which of the following statements are true? Streptomycin …
1) is an aminoglycoside-type antibiotic. 2) gives a positive Sakaguchi reaction. 3) has an ototoxic effect. 4) is a first-line antituberculotic drug.
239. Which of the following statements are true? Neomycin …
1) is a pseudo-oligosaccharide-type antibiotic. 2) is a glycopeptide-type antibiotic. 3) has a significant antifungal effect. 4) is an oligosaccharide-type aminoglycoside antibiotic.
240. Which of the following statements relating to erythromycin are true?
1) It is a macrolide antibiotic. 2) It contains a lactone structural element. 3) Its ring contains an even number of atoms. 4) In its structure, the lactone ring has an even number of carbon atoms.
Men as Cultural Ideals: How Culture Shapes Gender Stereotypes Amy J. C. Cuddy, Harvard Business School Susan Crotty, Dubai School of Government Michael I. Norton, Harvard Business School Dubai School of Government Working Paper 10-07 Men as Cultural Ideals: How Culture Shapes Gender Stereotypes Amy J. C. Cuddy, Harvard Business School Susan Crotty, Dubai School of Government
Conflicts of interest: the issue goes on, and on. By Melissa Sweet The related issues of conflicts of interest and pharma marketing are a fertile field for investigation by researchers and journalists. You can get some sense of this from the list of recent articles below. This compilation is from Healthy Skepticism, and is provided as a free email update service to journalists (worth sig