EQUINE FACTSHEET: FOALING ADVICE LATE PREGNANCY (3-4 months prior to foaling) The average length of pregnancy is 335-342 days (can range between 320-400 days). Worming This should be done one month before foaling and before the mare is moved to a foaling box. Pasture worm with a single dose wormer, e.g. Ivermectin to remove adult red worms. Booster Vaccinations Boosters should be given at least one month before foaling to boost the mare’s immunity. She will pass on anti-bodies to the foal in her colostrum. It is also recommended to vaccinate mares against the Herpes virus (which can cause abortion) at five, seven and nine months of pregnancy. Feet and Exercise The mare’s feet should be kept in good shape and well trimmed. The mare should not be ridden in the last trimester. Paddock exercise is recommended. Feeding The foal gains 60-65% of its birth weight in the last three months of pregnancy. It is therefore important to feed a purpose made stud mix or cube along with good quality hay or grass to provide all the necessary nutrients. The Pregnant Mare Udder development starts approximately one month before foaling with a final enlargement in the last two weeks. Waxy material may appear on the teats (known as ‘waxing up’) 72 hours before foaling and mares may start to lie down more at this stage. Two days before foaling the vulva may become swollen and lengthen in appearance. Milk may drip from the udder in the last 24 hours. If this occurs the vet doing your foal check should be made aware of this as it may affect the amount of colostrum the foal receives and hence it’s immune status. If the foal does not receive sufficient colostrum it made need a plasma infusion to boost its immunity. NB. It is important to ring the practice when foaling is imminent to make sure the duty vet knows how to find you in case of any problems which may arise during foaling. PARTURITION (The foaling) Most mares foal during the night between the hours of 11 pm and 4 am. It is very important that foaling is allowed to occur as naturally as possible. Interference may interrupt the mare foaling and excessive foal handling may cause her to reject the foal. Only one person familiar to the mare should observe from a distance to be on hand if any problems arise or ideally monitor remotely via a video camera Stage 1 (Average 50 minutes, range 30 minutes to 6 hours duration) The mare is usually restless, sweaty, flank watching and may roll. If safe to do so put a tail bandage on the mare. Stage 2 (Average 20 minutes, range 10 to 60 minutes duration) The mare’s waters wil break and she may lie down. Foaling should occur within 30 minutes of the waters breaking. The foal is expelled forcibly in a sac and should break out on its own (provide assistance if necessary). The umbilical cord should be left to rupture naturally. The mare will usually be quite tired, so leave lying quietly for 30-40 minutes. Stage 3 (Average 1-3 hours) Passing of the after-birth (placenta) should occur in the first six hours post foaling. The passed placenta should be kept for the vet to examine to make sure it is complete when they check over the mare and foal. When to call the vet during labour If there is no progression of foaling 15 minutes after the waters have broken when abdominal contractions are present. If the foal appears mal-presented (normal presentation is a head and two legs coming first). If you see a red velvety sac at the vulva during Stage 2 instead of a bluey-white sac. This is known as ‘Red Bag’ and is a real emergency. If fluid from the ruptured sac is a strong yellow/brown colour, this indicates the foal has been stressed and passed its meconium (first dropping) which it may have ingested/inhaled. If the mare has persistent colic which does not pass with gentle hand walking. If the placenta is not passed within four hours. A retained placenta can cause endotoxaemia and severe laminitis in the mare. If you have any other concerns please contact the surgery straight away. The Foal Suck reflex This should be present in the first five to ten minutes. Standing This should occur one to three hours after birth. Drinking Suckling should happen two to four hours after birth. Adequate colostrum should be drunk within the first six hours. The foal should suck five to seven times per hour. Urination This should occur eight to twelve hours post foaling. Meconium (chocolate brown foal dung) This should be passed in the first couple of days. After the meconium is passed the droppings will be soft yellow milk dung. If the foal strains excessively please call the vet.
THE SPECIAL STATUS OF AGRICULTURE IN LATIN AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS Mónica KJÖLLERSTRÖM * Abstract - This paper provides a review of agriculture-related provisions in free trade agreements signed by Latin American countries and in force by December 2004. It is shown that the exceptional treatment received by the agricultural sector in the WTO is also found in free t
Anger: definition, health consequences, and treatment approaches. *Laboratory of Biological Dynamics and Theoretical Medicine § Veterans Affairs San Diego Health Care System In this review, four main aspects of anger are discussed. First, the definition and measurement of anger is examined; second, the neurobiological basis for anger and its expression is outlined; third, health consequenc