Italian pharmacy online: cialis senza ricetta medica in farmacia.

Microsoft word - ebcam39_2009.doc

MEMORANDUM N° 39/2009

06/05/2009

To all EBCAM Members:
SUMMARY:

ONE) – SAUDI INVESTORS PLEDGE 2 BILLION USD FOR MADAGASCAR PROJECTS
TWO) – FRANCE, NIGER SIGN KEY URANIUM DEAL
THREE) – SUDAN, CHAD SIGN ANOTHER RECONCILIATION AGREEMENT
FOUR) – MAKE USE OF AFRICAN SKILLS
FIVE) – FRANCE CAPTURES 11 SOMALI PIRATES
SOMALI PIRATES CAPTURE ANOTHER SHIP
CARGO SHIP HIJACKED OFF SOMALIA
SIX) – BERLIN CITY DISTRICT BECOMES A MAGNET FOR AFRICANS
SEVEN) – DOMESTIV PRODUCTION OF ENERGY IN TUNISIATUNISIE
EIGHT) – KENYA CANNOT FAIL TO PROSECUTE EXTRA JUDICIAL KILLINGS
NINE) – BARROSO LIKELY TO STAY FOR SECOND MANDATE
TEN) – BELGIUM’S MICHEL URGES WORLD NOT TO LET AFRICA DOWN DESPITE… CRISIS
ELEVEN) – CHAD DENOUNCES ANOTHER CARAVAN INVASION FROM SUDAN
CHAD REBELS INCURSION CONFIRMED
CHAD REBELS SAY THEY ADVANCE TOWARDS CAPITAL
TWELVE) – VIRAL TIME BOMB SET TO EXPLODE IN EGYPT
THIRTEEN) – FRENCH JUDGE OPENS INVESTIGATION INTO AFRICAN LEADERS' ASSETS
TRANSPARENCY URGES FRENCH COURT TO IGNORE POLITICS IN AFRICA PROBE
FIFTEEN) –ENERGY FORUM IN SENEGAL
SIXTEEN) – SOUTH AFRICA'S PARLIAMENT TO ELECT JACOB ZUMA PRESIDENT
SEVENTEEN) –UAE'S AIR ARABIA LAUNCHES NEW FLIGHTS TO EUROPE FROM MOROCCAN HUB
ONE) – SAUDI INVESTORS PLEDGE 2 BILLION USD FOR MADAGASCAR PROJECTS
Saudi investors have pledged 2 billion USD for Madagascar's tourism, communications and energy sectors, the government said, in a sign that some financiers are not shying away from the new president's administration. A political crisis since early this year has dealt a hefty blow to the Indian Ocean island's 390 MUSD-a-year holiday industry and the roughly $8 billion-a-year economy. Some investors are concerned that Africa's youngest incumbent president, Andry Rajoelina, will revise existing contracts -branded golden handshakes by the new government- if economic circumstances become more favourable. "Investments initially worth up to 2 billion USD will target the energy, communications, telecommunications and hotel sectors," Madagascar's Foreign Affairs Ministry said in a statement late on Sunday. The delegation from the Union of Saudi Investors was visiting Madagascar to explore opportunities at a time when recent deadly protests and a slew of political arrests have fuelled fears the island could slide back into turmoil. Rajoelina, who took power in March from ousted leader Marc Ravalomanana, has been quick to court new investors in a bid to re-boot the cash-strapped economy whose budget is 70 % funded by the international community. Several donors -- including the United States and Norway -- have frozen non-emergency assistance, straining the treasury accounts. Traditionally, Madagascar's economy has been based on cultivation of paddy rice, coffee, vanilla and cloves, but in recent years, there have been billions of dollars of foreign investment by resource companies. Despite a wealth of natural resources and tourist-luring wildlife, Madagascar is one of the world's poorest countries, ranked 143 out of 179 on the U.N.'s Human Development Index. TWO) – FRANCE, NIGER SIGN KEY URANIUM DEAL
En donnant lundi le coup d'envoi des travaux sur la mine stratégique géante d'uranium d'Imouraren en
présence d'un ministre français et de la patronne du groupe nucléaire français Areva, le président
nigérien Mamadou Tandja a mis fin à deux années de brouilles et de difficultés entre Paris et Niamey.
Pour le Niger, c'est à l'horizon 2012 la garantie de revenus substantiels et de devenir le second
producteur mondial (il est actuellement le 3e), et pour la France c'est la sécurisation de cet
approvisionnement essentiel tout en préservant de bonnes relations avec son ancienne colonie, à
laquelle elle fournit une aide budgétaire d'environ 8 MEUR par an. Début janvier dernier, Areva avait
signé avec le gouvernement du Niger une convention qui lui attribuait le permis d'exploitation du
gisement d'Imouraren, "la mine d'uranium la plus importante de toute l'Afrique et la deuxième du
monde", selon le numéro un mondial du nucléaire civil. Areva détiendra 66,65% de la société créée en
vue de l'exploitation du gisement, l'Etat du Niger 33,35%. Le démarrage de la production "à l'horizon
2012 permettra au Niger de doubler sa production actuelle et de se placer au deuxième rang mondial
des pays producteurs d'uranium", indiquait alors Areva. Le gisement devrait produire 5.000 tonnes
d'uranium par an à plein régime pendant plus de 35 ans. Il fera l'objet d'un investissement initial de plus
de 1,2 milliard EUR et engendrera près de 1.400 emplois directs. Mais pour en arriver à cet accord
stratégique -un tiers de l'électricité d'origine nucléaire produite par EDF dépend de l'uranium nigérien-,
il a fallu passer par des soubresauts "post-coloniaux" et une remise en cause par Niamey, parfois
virulente, de la toute-puissance de l'opérateur français, également en butte à des Ong qui dénoncent
sans relâche un désastre écologique et sanitaire lié à l'extraction du minerai radioactif.HARD
BARGAINING
Pendant de longs mois, Areva a ainsi été l'objet au Niger d'une campagne de presse et
de manifestations, accusé notamment un temps de soutenir la rébellion touareg qui avait ressurgi
début 2007 dans le nord du pays, précisément la zone uranifère. La tension était montée à son comble
avec l'expulsion en juillet 2007 du directeur local d'Areva, Dominique Pin, soupçonné par les autorités
de financer la rébellion, une accusation fermement rejetée par Areva. Sous la pression, Areva avait
déjà concédé une hausse du prix d'achat et accepté de céder 300 tonnes au gouvernement nigérien
pour le vendre directement. Parallèlement, les autorités nigériennes accordaient des licences de
prospection à des groupes canadiens ou chinois. "Il y a de la place pour tout le monde", relativisait
alors un cadre d'Areva sous couvert d'anonymat. Présent depuis 40 ans dans le pays, le groupe s'est
alors armé de patience, tandis que Paris dépêchait régulièrement des émissaires pour tenter d'arrondir
les angles. Lors de son déplacement de quelques heures à Niamey fin mars dernier en compagnie
d'Anne Lauvergon, la patronne d'Areva, Nicolas Sarkozy a lui aussi tenu à casser l'image d'une France
"prédatrice". "Au Niger, la France a des intérêts, elle les assume, elle les promeut, mais en toute
transparence", avait-il assuré dans un entretien accordé au journal nigérien Le Sahel. Coincidence, la
cérémonie du premier coup de pioche symbolique est intervenue au lendemain d'une rencontre à
Agadez (nord) entre le président Tandja et des chefs rebelles touareg, une première depuis la
résurgence d'une rébellion début 2007.
THREE) – SUDAN, CHAD SIGN ANOTHER RECONCILIATION AGREEMENT
Le Soudan et le Tchad ont signé tard dimanche à Doha un accord sur une réconciliation entre les deux pays dont les relations sont mauvaises en raison des rébellions qui s'activent sur leurs territoires. L'accord parrainé par le Qatar et la Libye prévoit de mettre en application d'anciens accords sur le contrôle des frontières pour empêcher les infiltrations de rebelles tchadiens venant du Soudan et de rebelles soudanais venant du Tchad, ont indiqué à la presse des responsables du Qatar. "On espère que cet accord créera un climat de confiance entre les deux pays qui rendra possible un sommet à Tripoli des deux présidents", a déclaré le ministre d'Etat qatari aux Affaires étrangères, Ahmad Ben Abdallah Al Mahmoud. Des délégations ministérielles du Soudan et du Tchad ont planché pendant plusieurs jours sur cet accord au Qatar qui a parrainé récemment un accord, mort né, entre Khartoum et le principal groupe de rebelles du Darfour (ouest du Soudan) le Mouvement pour la Justice et l'Egalité (JEM). Le Soudan et le Tchad entretiennent des relations tumultueuses, chacun accusant l'autre de soutenir des mouvements de rébellion chez son voisin. Le Soudan avait rompu en mai 2008 ses relations diplomatiques avec le Tchad après une attaque de rebelles du Darfour visant Khartoum, affirmant que N'Djamena était derrière ce raid. Le Tchad soutient, lui, avoir subi 28 attaques venues du Soudan, dont celle des 2 et 3 février 2008, au cours de laquelle des rebelles avaient investi sa capitale et étaient à deux doigts de renverser le président Idriss Deby Itno. FOUR) – MAKE USE OF AFRICAN SKILLS
The theme of the third biennial Knowledge Management Africa (KMA) conference, which opened in
the capital of Senegal, is lofty - "knowledge to reposition Africa in the world economy". But the aim
is more down-to-earth: to find ways to apply vital information to the basic question of improving the
lives of Africa's people.
KMA is an initiative of the Development Bank of South Africa, which seeks to build networks that
facilitate the sharing and use of knowledge across Africa. This takes place via an online hub linking
five regional chapters on the continent - each chapter has a particular focus; the West African hub
focuses on technologies for development for example - as well as regular conferences and
meetings.
"Networking takes place at the continental level, through KMA chapters," Dr Snowy Khoza, the
initiative's chairperson, told IPS ahead of the conference opening. "Individual members can
request or respond to issues by posting them online. Conferences create an environment for
interaction at a personal level."
Researchers and practitioners will present on a broad spectrum of issues, ranging from
safeguarding intellectual property rights and indigenous African plants like aloe vera to discussions
of the importance of open access to scientific and research publications and strengthening rural
communities' responses to climate change around Lake Victoria.
"Our activities and programmes are formulated to support and empower communities in Africa. For
example, the aloe vera plant which is used for medicinal purposes: we need to review and
acknowledge the way Africans have used this plant for generations. We need to support the notion
that indigenous African knowledge can be a solution to the continent’s problems," says Khoza.
The emphasis on building, enhancing and applying knowledge at the local level using various
technologies runs parallel to similar initiatives such as AgCommons, which focuses on providing
location-specific information to smallholder farmers to help them make better decisions.
One scheme in Uganda uses cellphones to get precise information about crop diseases and
appropriate measures against them to farmers, while allowing farmers to report symptoms of
diseases to the authorities - simultaneously improving data collection and giving farmers advice
and early warning and advice on how to avoid potentially devastating losses.
Another project poised to begin later this year will put very high resolution images taken by satellite
in the hands of smallholder farmers in four West African countries. The pictures reveal the
presence of trees, as well as "stress pockets" - associated with depleted soils - and areas of high
productivity.
"My belief is that farmers in most cases are the experts, and they know their land very well," says
Pierre C. Sibiry Traore, a scientist with the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid
Tropics. Traore concedes that small farmers already know almost everything that these images
show, yet they have shown keen interest in the printouts.
"I'm tempted to think that maybe the value of the information is not at the level of an individual
farmer, but more at the smallholder community level, where they can use it as arbitration tool, or as
a way to deploy new resources," he says. Traore envisions the information being used to highlight issues of land tenure, serve as a tool in conflict resolution or guide implementation of conservation measures like contour-ridge tillage, which maximises water retention and protects soil from erosion, but requires resources and expertise beyond the reach of an individual farmer. The pictures could both clarify the potential of joint efforts among neighbouring smallholders and provide hard data that will help them make their case to find external support for such projects. The conference in Dakar, however, has a strong focus on looking within the continent for solutions. "The idea behind KMA is to make use of African skills for development, instead of only seeking assistance from America or European professionals. There is an online database, ‘Who’s Who in Africa’, which provides contact details of African experts in the fields of media, medicine, technology, engineering, law and other sectors," says Khoza. FIVE) – FRANCE CAPTURES 11 SOMALI PIRATES
France intercepted 11 suspected Somali pirates on Sunday after they mistook a French naval ship for a commercial vessel and started heading towards it in preparation for an attack, a Defence Ministry spokesman said. Heavily-armed Somali pirates have stepped up their attacks on vessels in Indian Ocean shipping lanes and the Gulf of Aden, capturing dozens of vessels, kidnapping hundreds of hostages and raking in millions of dollars in ransoms. The French navy seized the suspected pirates, who were in three small boats, 1,000 kilometres off the coast of Somalia in the Indian Ocean. "They confused the Nivose with a commercial ship and rushed towards it, to intercept it," the spokesman said. "The Nivose then put its own craft in the water with its commandos and sent out a helicopter and stopped these 11 pirates who were on these three boats." Two were small boats which the pirates use for attacks and the third was the mother ship which is used to transport supplies such as petrol, water and food. The commandos also found guns and rockets on the boats. "The pirates are currently on the Nivose," he said. "For the moment we don't have any indication of what the European Union forces want to do with these pirates." A French naval patrol seized three more pirates in Seychelles' waters on Saturday and handed them over to the coastguard, the islands' president's office said. The attacks have disrupted U.N. aid supplies, driven up insurance costs and forced some firms to consider routing cargo between Europe and Asia around South Africa instead. Naval forces from the United States, Europe and Asia have been deployed to protect merchant ships. SOMALI PIRATES CAPTURE ANOTHER SHIP Les pirates somaliens ont capturé ce week-end un
bateau pakistanais transportant des marchandises pour des commerçants somaliens, ont indiqué
dimanche à l'AFP un chef des pirates et un homme d'affaires local.
CARGO SHIP HIJACKED OFF SOMALIA An Antigua and Barbuda-flagged cargo ship has been
hijacked by pirates off the coast of Somalia, the government of the Caribbean state said on Tuesday.
"At approximately 09:09 a.m. AST (1209 GMT), the Maritime Administration of Antigua and Barbuda
was advised that the Antigua and Barbuda flagged cargo vessel the m/v Victoria had been hijacked by
eight pirates in the Gulf of Aden whilst proceeding toward the Port of Jeddah in the Red Sea," the
Antigua and Barbuda government said in a statement.
SIX) – BERLIN CITY DISTRICT BECOMES A MAGNET FOR AFRICANS
Kenyan teenager Martin Thuo, one of 52 young people from war-torn regions of Africa, sits at a computer at the "Zwischenstation" (inter-station) in Berlin's northern district of Wedding. The 15-year-old arrived in the German capital from an African refugee camp four months ago, following the traumatic loss of his closest relatives, killed in the violence that rocked Kenya in the early part of 2008. "Someone I met at the refugee camp brought me to Germany," the teenager said. "Now I am trying to forget the past and begin a new life here in Berlin." "I go to a school in Berlin and I'm trying to pick up German as quickly as possible, but it's not easy," Thuo murmured in English. "Eventually I would like to go to university here," the young Kenyan added. Thomas Willmann, one of a team of social workers employed by the Zwischenstation, said scores of young African refugees, aged between 15 and 22, are arriving in Berlin after escaping their troubled homelands. "Earlier, most of the arrivals were from Angola, China, Vietnam, Mongolia, Bangladesh, India and Pakistan, or from the countries of eastern Europe following the collapse of communism," Willmann said. "Now, increasingly, they come from countries in West Africa - from Senegal, Cameroon, Guinea and also from Kenya," the social worker added. The role of the Zwischenstation is to ensure people learn German and receive education or formative job training, according to Willmann. "Some of the young people never went to school in Africa. Others, forced to serve as 'child soldiers' in war zones, arrived in Germany in a badly traumatised state," Willmann said. "They need extra support," the trained psychologist added. By a quirk of history, many of Wedding's streets are named after African regions. They date back to the 1890s, when Germany was flexing its colonial muscle in parts of Africa. The bustling district includes street names such as Ghana, Congo, Togo and Senegal Street, all linked by the arterial African Road. The residents, it seems, have followed the street names. "It's really only in the past decade that an increasing number of Africans have settled in Wedding," Willmann pointed out. Today, 18,288 Africans are registered in Berlin, 2475 of them in the Wedding district. But these figures don't include a sizeable number of German passport holders of African origin. SEVEN) – DOMESTIV PRODUCTION OF ENERGY IN TUNISIATUNISIE
La Société Tunisienne de l’électricité et du gaz (STEG) a annoncé le lancement d’un projet baptisé «
Solar Roofs », qui offre la possibilité aux particuliers de produire et de vendre leur propre électricité à
partir de panneaux solaires photovoltaïques. L’annonce a été faite lors d’une conférence de presse
tenue mardi 21 avril 2009 à Tunis.
La STEG assurera l’acquisition, la mise en place et l’entretien des panneaux solaires dans les
maisons individuelles et accordera des prêts d’un montant allant jusqu’à 60% du coût total de
l’installation. Une subvention d’environ 30% des coûts sera octroyée par le Fonds national de gestion
de l’énergie (FNME).
Le PDG de la STEG a annoncé également l’introduction de tarifs promotionnels pour le transport et la
connexion au réseau électrique de l’électricité produite par des particuliers. Pour ce faire, la STEG va
fournir du gaz naturel dans une centaine de nouvelles zones communales y compris ceux de
Zaghouan, Feriana, Zarzis, Sfax et Mornag.
Une nouvelle direction en charge des énergies renouvelables va être créée au sein de la STEG ; elle
sera chargée de suivre les divers programmes d’efficacité énergétique mis en place. De même, un
réseau national de points d’information sur la gestion de l’énergie sera mis en place.
EIGHT) – KENYA CANNOT FAIL TO PROSECUTE EXTRA JUDICIAL KILLINGS
When stock is taken of the Kenyan coalition government’s first year in office no marks will be awarded to its handling of extra-judicial killings in the country. Human rights activists claim that the police have murdered about 500 people in the past 16 months. The government, constituted after a mediation process between President Mwai Kibaki and Prime Minister Raila Odinga’s parties following a disputed presidential poll in December 2007, has dithered on its pledge that it would address the killings. The gunning down of two human rights activists on Mar. 5 has escalated fears among human rights campaigners that unknown persons, suspected to be the police, are targeting them. "We have been threatened. One of our officers has had to leave the country after the two murders," Njonjo Mue, in charge of campaigns and advocacy at the Kenya National Commission on Human Rights (KNCHR), a state body, told IPS. The slain activists, Oscar King’ara and Paul Oulu of the Oscar Foundation, which offers free legal aid to poor communities, had documented evidence of police complicity in the murder of young "under-employed" men. Last year they authored a publication, The Veil of Impunity: Executions and Disappearances, Who is Guilty that revealed that 8,000 young people from Central Kenya, Nairobi and part of the Rift Valley had disappeared or had been executed since 2002. It also documented the existence of mass graves in forests across the country. Similar revelations are contained in a KNCHR study, The Cry of Blood: Report on Extra-Judicial Killings and Disappearances. The findings of the reports resonate with Philip Alston, a United Nations Special Rapporteur on extra judicial killings whose February mission to Kenya also pointed to "widespread police executions". Investigations into the killings have divided government. Prime Minister Odinga has called for an independent probe while government spokesperson, Alfred Mutua, has shrugged off criticism. The internal security minister, George Saitoti, has insisted that the police are "well able" to conduct investigations much to the disappointment of civic groups. "By insisting that the police investigate themselves - yet it is they who have been widely accused of assassinations and extra judicial killings - is to confirm how cynical the government is and how deep impunity runs," Cyprian Nyamwamu who speaks for a grouping of reform organisations told IPS. The umbrella body, the National Civil Society Congress, now wants the International Criminal Court (ICC) to step in. "The extent and enormity of extra judicial killings in Kenya qualify for the offences of genocide under the Rome Statute. The ICC has a mandate to investigate the killings," Harun Ndubi, the body’s spokesperson on extra judicial killings said. The Statute refers to the treaty that established the ICC to investigate and prosecute individuals who commit genocide and other serious crimes. On April 8, Nairobi-based human rights lawyer, Paul Muite, wrote to the ICC chief prosecutor Moreno Ocampo urging him to act against President Kibaki over the killings. He also wants Saitoti, the internal security minister and police commissioner, Major General Hussein Ali, to be indicted. The drive to involve the ICC has gained momentum following the government’s failure to set up a local tribunal to probe post-election violence that claimed 1,500 lives and displaced over 300,000 people. In February a bill to establish the tribunal was overwhelmingly rejected by parliament on fears that it would be vulnerable to political manipulation. The defeat has been lauded by those who believe that an ICC-led probe would signal a new beginning in arresting the culture of impunity. Human Rights Watch (HRW) however still favours a local tribunal and maintains that sovereign countries have a responsibility to guarantee the rule of law. "It may be that the ICC will have to step in because the Kenyan government is unable or unwilling to see justice done, but that would be a dereliction of duty by Kenya's leaders," Ben Rawlence, the Kenya Researcher for HRW told IPS. "Since our priority is preventing more killings, we need something that can operate more quickly than the ICC traditionally has. A special tribunal here in Kenya could be mobilised with proper political will much more quickly," HRW executive director, Kenneth Roth, reiterated during a visit to Kenya in March. "Kenya cannot simply choose to abdicate its responsibility as a state and fail to prosecute those who caused death and destruction last year." And there’s support for the HRW position from the KNCHR. "There is some healing that takes place when [victims] see perpetrators in the dock as opposed to when the perpetrators are put on flights to go for trial miles away," Mue observed. NINE) – BARROSO LIKELY TO STAY FOR SECOND MANDATE
Sauf victoire surprise des partis de gauche aux élections européennes de juin, le conservateur portugais José Manuel Barroso a toutes les chances d'être reconduit dans la foulée à la tête de la Commission européenne. "C'est le candidat sortant, difficile à écarter" en l'absence d'un concurrent sérieux ou d'une coalition de pays se liguant contre lui, explique Piotr Kaczynski, chercheur au Centre des politiques européennes (EPC) à Bruxelles. L'ancien Premier ministre du Portugal avait été propulsé en 2004 à la tête de la Commission. Ce polyglotte de 53 ans au sourire affable, "soucieux de ne pas se faire d'ennemis" dans l'arène européenne, est très tôt parti en campagne, ce qui a échaudé toutes les velléités de ses rivaux, note Kaczynski. Conséquence de ce travail de sape: les conservateurs du Parti populaire européen -première formation du Parlement européen- l'ont adoubé à l'unanimité. Les dirigeants européens doivent en principe arrêter leur choix lors de leur sommet des 18-19 juin, suivant les européennes. Si la majorité du Parlement basculait à gauche, la légitimité de Barroso serait remise en cause. De leur côté, les socialistes européens, très divisés, n'ont pas présenté leur propre candidat. Les socialistes français ont attaqué l'action de Barroso. Mais Gordon Brown, travailliste, soutient un deuxième mandat du Portugais. Le Premier ministre socialiste portugais José Socrates lui a apporté un appui "patriote", préférant peut-être le garder éloigné à Bruxelles. Cette préférence "ibérique" a aussi primé chez le chef de gouvernement espagnol, le socialiste José Luis Zapatero. Premier président d'un collège de 26 commissaires (issu de l'arrivée dans l'UE de 12 nouveaux pays depuis 2004), M. Barroso a su "imposer une unité alors que l'anarchie menaçait", souligne un ancien haut fonctionnaire de la Commission. "Il sait diriger les débats, tirer des conclusions, et cette coordination forte a été utile pour mener à bien le plan climat-énergie" qui touche à de multiples secteurs, juge-t-il. Ce plan imposant des contraintes environnementales inédites à l'industrie européenne est considéré comme le grand succès de Barroso. Mais son approche centralisatrice et électoraliste a aussi parfois tari le débat des commissaires, critique la même source. Sa lenteur à l'automne à réagir à la crise financière, face aux annonces faites tambour battant de Paris et Londres, aurait pu sonner sa disgrâce. Il a aussi surmonté les crises institutionnelles nées du rejet en France, aux Pays-Bas et en Irlande des projets de réformes du fonctionnement de l'UE. TEN) – BELGIUM’S MICHEL URGES WORLD NOT TO LET AFRICA DOWN DESPITE… CRISIS
Le ministre de la Coopération au développement, Charles Michel (MR), a appelé mardi les pays occidentaux à ne pas réduire leur aide publique au développement au profit du Tiers Monde en invoquant la crise qui touche leur propre économie, et suggéré de transformer cette crise en "oppportunité" en procédant à des réformes nécessaires. "Résistons aux tentations de fermer nos frontières, de bloquer l'accès à nos marchés et de gratter des économies budgétaires sur le dos de nos engagements en Afrique subsaharienne", a-t-il affirmé en ouvrant, aux côtés de la princesse Mathilde, les 2èmes Assises de la Coopération belge au développement au Palais d'Egmont à Bruxelles. Cette conférence rassemblant différents acteurs du développement, dont le président de la Banque africaine de développement (BAD), Donald Kaberuka, était consacrée à l'impact de la crise économique et financière sur les pays africains à faible revenu. "Honorer nos engagements financiers et doper la qualité de nos projets communs doit être considéré comme un des éléments clés des plans de relance de nos économies occidentales", a ajouté M. Michel, en citant l'exemple du plan Marshall lancé par les Etats-Unis à destination de l'Europe au sortir de la seconde Guerre mondiale. M. Kaberuka a pour sa part dressé un tableau sombre des conséquences de la crise sur les économies africaines, qui connaîtront cette année dans leur ensemble un déficit budgétaire de 5,4 % du PIB, après un excédent de 2,8% en 2008. ELEVEN) – CHAD DENOUNCES ANOTHER CARAVAN INVASION FROM SUDAN
Les rebelles tchadiens sont entrés lundi dans l'est du Tchad en provenance du Soudan avec "plusieurs centaines de véhicules", mais aucun accrochage n'a eu lieu jusqu'ici avec l'armée de N'Djamena, a déclaré mardi à l'AFP le porte-parole du gouvernement tchadien. I DIDN’T DO IT, SAYS SUDAN Le Soudan "n'a aucun lien" avec une offensive armée au Tchad, a
déclaré mardi à l'AFP le porte-parole officiel des forces armées soudanaises, démentant les
accusations du gouvernement tchadien.
UN INCREASES PATROLS La mission de l'ONU déployée au Tchad (Minurcat) a décidé d'augmenter
le nombre de ses patrouilles militaires autour de Goz Beida (est) et ordonné des restrictions de
déplacement par "mesure de sécurité", selon son porte-parole joint mardi par l'AFP. Des consignes
sécuritaires ont été données "depuis hier (lundi) soir" aux équipes de l'ONU et aux ONG opérant dans
la région, a expliqué Michel Bonnardeaux, joint depuis Libreville. Le porte-parole de la Minurcat s'est
refusé à faire un lien entre ces mesures et les accusations du gouvernement tchadien contre le
Soudan d'avoir lancé "plusieurs colonnes armées" contre le Tchad. Khartoum a immédiatement
démenti toute implication. "Nous suivons la situation de près", a-t-il simplement dit. "Des restrictions sur
les missions hors des centres urbains, pour minimiser les risques pour les ONG" ont notamment été
décidées et "nous avons augmenté le nombre de patrouilles militaires" essentiellement autour de Goz
Beida, "dans le cadre du mandat de la Minurcat", a ajouté le porte-parole. La Minurcat, qui a pris mi-
mars le relais de la Force européenne Eufor, est chargée d'assurer la sécurité des personnes
déplacées dans l'est du Tchad et le nord-est de la Centrafrique - où la mission est aussi déployée -, à
favoriser leur retour volontaire et à faciliter l'aide humanitaire. Selon des humanitaires, l'est du Tchad
abrite quelque 450.000 personnes, composées de réfugiés soudanais et centrafricains ainsi que de
déplacés tchadiens. Une source humanitaire jointe par l'AFP à N'Djamena a affirmé sous couvert
d'anonymat avoir été informée "de mouvements sur le territoire tchadien" remontant "à quelques jours",
sans plus de détails. Les communications avec l'est du Tchad étaient difficiles mardi en milieu de
journée et aucun dirigeant de la rébellion tchadienne n'avait pu être joint par l'AFP pour réagir aux dernières informations. CHAD REBELS INCURSION CONFIRMED Les rebelles tchadiens sont entrés lundi, en provenance
du Soudan, avec "plusieurs centaines de véhicules" dans l'est du Tchad où aucun accrochage n'a eu
lieu jusqu'ici avec l'armée de N'Djamena, ont déclaré mardi les deux parties. Les forces rebelles
tchadiennes se trouvent "sur la ligne entre Goz Beïda et Abéché" dans l'est du Tchad, a affirmé mardi
en soirée un responsable de l'Union des forces de la résistance (UFR), alliance des principales factions
rebelles du Tchad. Goz Beïda, localité de l'est du Tchad où sont implantés des camps de réfugiés
soudanais du Darfour, est situé à une centaine de kilomètres à l'ouest du Soudan et à environ 200 km
au sud d'Abéché. La mission de l'ONU au Tchad (Minurcat) a accru ses patrouilles autour de Goz
Beïda et restreint les déplacements, par "mesure de sécurité". Le Quay d'Orsay à Paris indiquait dans
la matinée que des groupes armés "auraient pénétré au Tchad en provenance du Soudan" et "de
plusieurs dizaines de kilomètres en territoire tchadien". Ils sont à l'intérieur du pays, à environ 100 km à
l'est de Goz Beïda "à bord de plusieurs centaines de véhicules", a précisé à l'AFP le porte-parole du
gouvernement tchadien Mahamat Hissène, également ministre de la Communication. "Pour le moment,
il n'y a pas eu de contact avec les forces gouvernementales", a-t-il ajouté. Ce qu'a confirmé le
responsable rebelle : "nous sommes effectivement entrés depuis hier (lundi) au Tchad" et "il n'y a pas
eu de combats". Mais le Centre soudanais des médias, proche du renseignement de Khartoum, a
affirmé que des combats meurtriers avaient opposé lundi l'armée de N'Djamena aux rebelles tchadiens
à la frontière tchado-soudanaise. Hissène avait, un peu plus tôt, accusé à la radio le Soudan d'avoir
lancé "plusieurs colonnes armées" contre son pays, mais Khartoum a nié toute implication. Base
arrière des rebelles qui avaient failli renverser le président Idriss Deby en février 2008, le Soudan serait
leur principal soutien. Pour certains observateurs, le Tchad joue le même rôle auprès de factions
rebelles du Darfour, dans l'ouest soudanais. A Paris, le porte-parole du ministère des Affaires
étrangères Eric Chevallier a fait part de la "grande préoccupation" de la France. Les activités
humanitaires n'ont pas connu "de grande interruption" mardi et "le service essentiel continue" dans l'est
du Tchad, selon Katy Thiam, chargée de l'information du Bureau de coordination des affaires
humanitaires de l'ONU (Ocha) dans la région, jointe par l'AFP. Ces derniers jours, diverses sources
avaient évoqué l'imminence d'une offensive rebelle tchadienne contre N'djamena. Dimanche, sous
l'égide du Qatar et de la Libye, Khartoum et N'Djamena avaient signé à Doha un nouvel accord
s'ajoutant à de nombreuses "ententes" déjà conclues pour pacifier leurs relations tumultueuses mais
restées lettre morte. Les principales factions rebelles du Tchad sont désormais unies au sein de l'Union
des forces de la résistance (UFR), dirigée par Timan Erdimi, neveu et ancien proche du président
Deby.
CHAD REBELS SAY THEY ADVANCE TOWARDS CAPITAL Les troupes rebelles tchadiennes,
venues lundi du Soudan voisin, continuaient mercredi "leur progression" à l'intérieur du Tchad avec
pour "objectif final" N'Djamena, ont indiqué des responsables de la rébellion.
TWELVE) – VIRAL TIME BOMB SET TO EXPLODE IN EGYPT
It is a health crisis of alarming proportions. Up to nine million Egyptians have been exposed to hepatitis C, and tens of thousands will die each year unless they receive a liver transplant. Health authorities are taking steps to stop the spread of the blood-borne virus, but must also contend with higher liver failure mortality rates as the disease advances in those infected decades ago. "The prevalence of hepatitis C is not growing, but the impact of an outbreak in the 1960s and 70s is appearing now as a clinical outcome," says Dr. Mostafa Kamal Mohamed, professor of community medicine at Ain Shams University in Cairo. "Liver disease has become the number one healthcare priority for the country and will continue to be so for the next decade. About 70 % of all liver deaths here are due to hepatitis C." Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C in the world, the legacy of a well-intended health campaign that went horribly wrong. In the 1960s, the government turned to modern medicine in the hope of eradicating bilharzia, a water-borne parasite that has plagued Egyptian farmers since the dawn of time. In a tragic irony, the tartar-emetic injections given to Egyptians living in rural areas cured their bilharzia, but spread another deadly disease among the population, the hepatitis C virus (HCV). "At that time, bilharzia treatment was administered intravenously," recalls Dr. Refaat Kamel, a prominent surgeon and specialist in tropical diseases. "There were no disposable syringes, so once the needle got infected, the disease spread quickly from one person to another." Millions of Egyptians were inadvertently infected with HCV before the World Health Organisation (WHO) sponsored anti-bilharzia campaign was shut down in 1982. Scientists only discovered the hepatitis C virus in 1987, and it was another decade before they proved that its high prevalence in Egypt was a consequence of the mass treatment campaign. While Egyptian healthcare workers adopted disposable needles in the 1980s, HCV continued to spread due to improper blood screening and poor hygiene practices. "There is a laxity in precautions in Egypt," says Kamel. "People are careless or ignorant where blood is involved, and this has facilitated the transmission of HCV." The results of a national survey released last month show that eight to nine million Egyptians, more than 10 % of the population, have been exposed to hepatitis C, of which approximately 5.5 million are chronic carriers. In some rural areas over half the adult population carries HCV antibodies. About 30 % of people infected with HCV spontaneously clear the virus from their system within six months, according to studies done in Egypt. The rest develop chronic hepatitis, which in about a quarter of cases leads to cirrhosis and liver failure in 20 to 30 years. Egypt's viral time bomb is about to go off. Doctors estimate that some 30,000 Egyptians die each year of HCV-related liver failure - a figure that is projected to climb as the disease progresses in those who contracted it during the 1964-82 anti-bilharzia campaign. "We expect the number of mortalities will peak in 2012," says Dr. Wahid Doss, head of the National Committee for the Control of Viral Hepatitis (NCCVH), a government body formed to fight the disease. NCCVH is implementing an infection control programme in hospitals and blood banks as part of a national strategy to reduce new HCV infections, estimated at 70,000-140,000 cases a year. It is also spearheading a media campaign to educate the public on the various routes of blood-to-blood transmission. "Prevention is a big problem in Egypt - people are still being infected with hepatitis C (due to risky behaviour)," says Doss. "For example, if you go to a festival you will find people doing circumcisions or tattooing - the same tool for 50 people." Treatment options are limited for HCV carriers with end-stage liver disease. Egypt's prohibition on cadaveric organ transplants and the strict criteria for living donors limit the number of livers available for transplant. "A few hundred donor transplants are carried out each year; tens of thousands are needed," says Kamel. "Without transplants, all these people will die." Limited organ availability is only one problem. A partial liver transplant can cost up to 60,000 USD plus another 10,000 USD for immunosuppressant therapy - a sum far beyond the reach of most Egyptians. The government has in some cases subsidised the cost of transplant operations, but it cannot afford to foot the total bill. "No government on earth could afford to cover the costs of all liver transplants," asserts Kamel. Instead, the priority is to treat HCV infections where the disease has not yet caused severe liver impairment. The standard therapy is a combination of interferon and the antiviral drug ribavirin. A 48-week course costs 3,500 USD, but is effective in only 30-50 % of cases, and can have severe side effects. NCCVH has established 16 treatment centres around the country, which have provided free interferon shots for 47,000 HCV patients since the programme began two years ago. The government is spending more than 50 MUSD a year on the subsidy package, but Doss argues that it is the most sensible and cost-effective strategy. "You pay per patient now and you save on a liver transplant 10 years later." THIRTEEN) – FRENCH JUDGE OPENS INVESTIGATION INTO AFRICAN LEADERS' ASSETS
A French magistrate has launched a probe into whether the presidents of three African oil-producing countries used embezzled public funds to buy luxury homes and cars, the Paris prosecutors' office said on Tuesday. The case could strain French diplomatic and business ties with Gabon and Congo Republic, two former colonies and close allies, and with Equatorial Guinea, a growing oil exporter. "This is an unprecedented decision because it's the first time a judicial inquiry has been opened concerning suspected embezzlement by sitting presidents," said William Bourdon, a lawyer representing the plaintiffs in the case. A 2007 French police probe found the leaders of the three countries and their families owned dozens of bank accounts, homes in rich areas of Paris and on the Riviera, and cars including Bugattis, Ferraris, Maybachs, Maseratis and a Rolls-Royce. Omar Bongo of Gabon, Denis Sassou-Nguesso of Congo and Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo of Equatorial Guinea deny any wrongdoing. They have been embarrassed by the disclosure in French media of their assets worth tens of millions of EUR. Bongo, Africa's longest-serving ruler who regards Paris as a second home, was so infuriated by a report on the subject on French state television last year that the French ambassador in Libreville was summoned in protest. The Paris magistrate, who is independent from government, decided to open the formal investigation at the request of the French arm of anti-graft watchdog, Transparency International. It is the first time the organisation has been admitted as a plaintiff in such a case and the precedent is likely to encourage similar actions by anti-graft activists elsewhere. A Gabonese citizen, Gregory Ngbwa Mintsa, had requested to be a co-plaintiff with Transparency on the basis that as a taxpayer he was a victim of corruption, but the magistrate rejected the argument so he will not be party to the case. The Paris prosecutors' office, which answers to the justice ministry, had asked for Transparency's complaint to be shelved. It is likely to appeal against the magistrate's decision. Should the case continue, it could damage France's relations with two of its closest African allies, but if it is halted that would raise suspicions some presidents are protected because of French interests in their countries. Bongo and Sassou-Nguesso have both enjoyed friendships with successive French presidents and backing from Paris at testing moments of their careers. French oil and gas group Total is the leading producer in Gabon and Congo Republic and many other French firms, public and private, have long-term contracts there. The magistrate has opened a preliminary investigation, which in French law is a first step towards establishing whether there may be a case to answer in a criminal court. It can lead either to further investigation or to no further action. TRANSPARENCY URGES FRENCH COURT TO IGNORE POLITICS IN AFRICA PROBE A judicial
inquiry into the assets of African presidents with close ties to the French government should proceed
free of political pressures, the anti-corruption activists who initiated the case said on Wednesday. A
magistrate launched the investigation on Tuesday in response to a complaint filed by the French arm of
Transparency International, an independent anti-graft watchdog, against the presidents of Gabon,
Congo Republic and Equatorial Guinea and their relatives. It is politically inconvenient for France
because Presidents Omar Bongo of Gabon and Denis Sassou-Nguesso of Congo Republic are its
oldest and closest allies in Africa, and France has important economic interests in their oil-producing
countries. Citing a 2007 police inquiry that found the ruling families had acquired luxury homes and
cars worth tens of millions of euros in France, Transparency International alleged that these assets
were bought with embezzled public money. The presidents deny any wrongdoing. A magistrate who is
independent from government, Francoise Desset, on Tuesday admitted Transparency International as
a plaintiff and opened a preliminary investigation. The Paris prosecutors' office, which answers to the
justice ministry and opposes the probe, is considering an appeal. That could block proceedings for
months and potentially for good. "An appeal aimed at putting a lid on this investigation . would make a
mockery of President Nicolas Sarkozy's commitments at the G20 against tax havens, financial crime
and international fraud," said William Bourdon, Transparency's lawyer. FRENCH INTERESTS He
called on the prosecutors to resist any pressure linked to French interests in Africa and allow the probe
to proceed. French group Total is the leading oil producer in Gabon and Congo Republic and many
other French firms, public and private, have long-term contracts in the two former colonies. Bongo and
Sassou-Nguesso have both enjoyed friendships with successive French presidents and backing from
Paris at testing moments of their careers. Analysts say the judicial probe could mark a turning point in
these relationships and prompt a backlash against French interests in the two countries. Equatorial
Guinea, a former Spanish colony, has much looser ties with Paris, but is of strategic interest as a
growing oil exporter, number three in sub-Saharan Africa. Daniel Lebegue, president of the French arm
of Transparency International, said it was the first time sitting heads of state were targeted in a judicial
probe on suspicion of embezzlement. "It has opened the door for similar actions in other countries," he
told a news conference. Lebegue said it was also a first for Transparency International, one of the most
prominent anti-corruption groups in the world, to be admitted as a plaintiff and it would open new
perspectives for the organisation to launch legal action.
FOURTEEN) – EU-FUNDED ‘PEACE ROAD’ INAUGURATED IN CONGO REPUBLIC Une route dite
de la "paix", financée par l'Union européenne (UE), a été officiellement inaugurée mardi dans la région
du Pool (sud) dévastée par la guerre entre 1998 et 2003, a constaté un journaliste de l'AFP. "Cette
route est celle de la paix", a déclaré le chef de la délégation de la Commission de l'UE au Congo,
Miguel Amado, ayant assisté à la cérémonie présidée par le président congolais Denis Sassou
Nguesso à Kinkala, chef-lieu du Pool à 62 km de la capitale. "A travers elle, les gens se déplacent, se rencontrent et se croisent. C'est un symbole de la paix", a-t-il ajouté. Longue de 68 Km, cette voie de communication part de Brazzaville à Gambari, via Kinkala. Elle a été construite en 34 mois pour 46,62 MEUR financés entièrement par l'UE, selon les responsables du projet. Elle représente le plus important ouvrage réalisé dans le Pool, une région ravagée par cinq ans de guerre. Les combats ont opposé les forces gouvernementales et les combattants Ninjas de l'ex-chef rebelle Frédéric Bintsamou, alias Pasteur Ntumi, qui y vit retranché depuis plus de dix ans. Après l'inauguration, le président congolais a parcouru la route à bord d'un véhicule blindé jusqu'à l'entrée de Brazzaville, où il est monté dans son hélicoptère FIFTEEN) –ENERGY FORUM IN SENEGAL
Un forum sur l'électrification sera organisé du 12 au 15 mai 2009 à Dakar à l'initiative de la Fédération nationale d'électricité et d'électronique du Maroc (FENELEC), en collaboration avec le ministère sénégalais de l'Energie. "L'électrification, vecteur de développement et de croissance" sera le thème de la rencontre à laquelle prendront également part le Cameroun et le Maroc. Une exposition de matériels électriques est prévue en marge du forum avec la participation d'une quarantaine de sociétés marocaines, membres de la FENELEC. Le savoir-faire marocain en ingénierie d'installation électrique sera exposé à côté d'une large gamme de produits électriques fabriqués au Maroc. Le but du forum et de l'exposition est “d'échanger avec les professionnels et les investisseurs qui interviennent dans le secteur de l'électricité en général, et de l'électrification rurale en particulier, au Sénégal, sur l'expertise marocaine dans le domaine“. SIXTEEN) – SOUTH AFRICA'S PARLIAMENT TO ELECT JACOB ZUMA PRESIDENT
South Africa's parliament is set to choose Jacob Zuma as state president on Wednesday after his ruling ANC's resounding election victory, capping his remarkable political comeback. After an eight-year battle with corruption charges that threatened to ruin him, Zuma takes on an economy that may already be in its first recession in 17 years, and challenges such as widespread poverty, crime and AIDS. The new government is expected to leave conservative and fiscal policies in place in Africa's biggest economy to cushion the impact of the global credit crunch and reassure investors who fear Zuma may steer the economy to the left. The charismatic former freedom fighter, whose graft charges were dropped just before the April 22 poll, will be inaugurated on Saturday and is expected to name a cabinet soon after. Zuma has denied any wrongdoing and said he is the victim of a political conspiracy. The fate of Finance Minister Trevor Manuel, widely respected by financial markets, will be closely watched by investors hoping for continuity. Zuma, who headed the ANC's intelligence department during the fight against apartheid, survived a bruising power struggle with former state President Thabo Mbeki that split the ANC and led to the creation of a breakaway party. Zuma's trade union and Communist Party allies, who want him to spend more on the poor, have helped him survive a series of crises that threatened to destroy his career, including rape charges dropped in 2006. SEVENTEEN) –UAE'S AIR ARABIA LAUNCHES NEW FLIGHTS TO EUROPE FROM MOROCCAN
HUB

United Arab Emirates budget carrier Air Arabia will launch flights to Paris, Barcelona and Brussels this month as it looks to boost revenue from its new Moroccan hub, the airline's chief executive said on Wednesday. The Middle East's largest low-cost carrier by market value began services from Casablanca to London on Wednesday and is aiming to fly to as many as 15 destinations from its North African hub in its first year of operations, Adel Ali told Reuters in a telephone interview. "It's very important for our growth. it's going to be a very big hub for us like Sharjah," he said, referring to the UAE's third-largest emirate, adding it was aiming for a 60 % passenger seat load factor for the first year. The air transport sector received a strong blow in 2008 first from rising fuel costs, then from the global financial crisis, although low-cost carriers typically perform better in an economic downturn than national carriers by competing on price. Ali said in March the airline was aiming to have about 25 aircraft flying out of the Moroccan city to at least 60 destinations in Europe and Africa within five years. "We should have at least 15 countries," he said when asked how many destinations it would fly to by May 2010. "We have got slots in these places . Barcelona, Paris, Brussels and will be flying there between now and May 16," Ali said. The airline, aiming to ultimately employ 1,000 people from 100 at present, has also started selling tickets to Lyon, Marseille and Milan, according to its website. Set up in 2003, Air Arabia has a fleet of 16 A320 aircraft, and has placed an order for 44 A320s from Airbus. Its Moroccan venture will initially operate two planes with a third arriving in June and a fourth in October, Ali said, thereafter adding as many as four aircraft a year. Air Arabia Maroc is majority-owned by local firm Regional Airlines. Air Arabia, which manages the airline, holds a 29 % stake with Bahrain's Ithmaar Bank owning the remainder European Business Council for Africa and the Mediterranean A v e n u e M a r n i x , 3 0 - 1 0 0 0 B r u s s e l s - B e l g i u m T e l . + 3 2 2 5 1 2 0 6 9 5 - F a x + 3 2 2 5 1 2 3 7 6 6

Source: http://www.helafrican-chamber.gr/uploads/EBCAM39_2009.pdf

nutrifisio.com.br

Conservative management in neurogenic bladder dysfunctionA few decades ago, urinary diversion, usually with an ilealThe neurological conditions that cause urinary tractconduit, was the ultimate outcome for most children with spinadamage in children may be congenital, idiopathic, or lessbifida. The revolutionary institution of clean intermittentfrequently are secondary to a trauma. The detail

Rapport

H VA Ø N S K E R RYG G PA S I E N T E R R y g g f o r e n i n g e n i N o r g e , N a s j o n a l t R y g g n e t t v e r k Dette prosjektet er finansiert med Extra-midler fra Helse og Rehabilitering INNHOLDSFORTEGNELSE Etter at jeg fikk diagnosen har det undret meg at jeg er blitt så voldsomt opptatt av å lære mest mulig om ryggproblemer. Er det flere enn meg som har det på samme

Copyright © 2010-2014 Pharmacy Drugs Pdf