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The Burnham Review
Diabetes and Manual Therapy Approaches
Consider Manual Therapy and Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Optimal Health
Kimberly Burnham, PhD Editor
vertebral subluxations, therapies include vitamin E,
which affec t t he glutathione, folate, pyridoxine,
relationship between biotin, myo-inositol, omega-3 and -6
the nervous system and fatty acids, L-arginine, L-glutamine,
organs. After one taurine, N-acetylcysteine, zinc,
month of being on the magnesium, chromium, and St.
7-24: Attention Deficit Disorder and ADHD
program, the patient's John's wort. glucose blood and
urine levels had acupuncture, magnetic therapy, and
Manual Therapy and Diabetes
normalized and remained stable. His yoga have been found to provide
There are a number of manual medical doctor, who monitored his benefit.”2 (Head,2006).
therapies, including massage, progress, said the patient would not Massage and Diabetes
reflexology, Integrative Manual need insulin if the condition
Therapy, Osteopathic Manual remained stable."1 (WCA 2007).
Treatment and imagery, which have Peripheral Neuropathy and
or relaxation therapy group. The
been shown clinically to improve the Alternative Therapies
Peripheral neuropathy (PN), the other therapy and were asked to
issue of The Burnham Review looks associated with diabetes, neurotoxic provide them for 20 minutes before
chemotherapy, HIV /antiretroviral bedtime each night for 30 days.
Diabetes and Chiropractics
Diabetes is the fifth deadliest deficiencies, heavy metal toxicity, touch therapy were reduced parent
disease in the United States and a and other etiologies, results in anxiety and depressed mood andgrowing epidemic worldwide. Now, significant morbidity.
A widening body of research and depressed affect. Over the 30
chiropractic adjustments might be indicates alternative medicine may day period compliance on insulin andable to make a valuable contribution offer significant benefit to this food regulation improved and bloodto an overall program of wellness patient population. Alpha-lipoic acid, glucose levels decreased from 159 tocare to help diabetes sufferers.
A study published in the Journal of b e n f o t i a m i n e ,
Vertebral Subluxation Research, methylcobalamin,
The Burnham Review
focused on the positive response to a n d t o p i c a l
Kim berly Burnham , PhD Editor
chiropractic when used as part of an c a p s a i c i n a r e
integrative treatment in the care of a among the most
Along with chiropractic care, the alternative options
For clients, practitioners and all people interested
patient also received nutritional and for the treatment
exercise guidance. The chiropractic of PN. Other
care was directed toward correcting potential nutrient
24 e-Newsletters per year $100
misalignments in the spine, called o r b o t a n i c a l
24 Issues per Year TheBurnhamReview.com 1 (c) 2007 Kimberly Burnham 8-19 Diabetes
within the normal range.” activation and pulmonary function, diseases, or a chance observation3(Field,1997).
as well as improvement in specific unrelated to type 2 diabetesclinical outcomes.
Reflexology’s Positive Influence
The Role of Relaxation, Hypnosis,
generalized improvements in health, Palpability of Type II Diabetes
Although type 2 diabetes mellitus 9 (Surwit,2002).
or specific physical benefits, such as is often managed by osteopathic
physicians, osteopathic palpatory relaxation, hypnosis, biofeedback,
Practitioners of reflexology claim findings in this disease have not been and guided imagery appear to stem
that, in addition to the relaxation and adequately studied.
“A case-control study was used to although there is some evidence of a
can bring about more specific measure the association between direct effect 10(McGrady,1990) and11changes in health. One classic type 2 diabetes mellitus and a series (Ratner,1990). reflexology text, for example, of 30 osteopathic palpatory findings.
includes case histories of ataxia, The latter included skin changes, depression and anxiety worsenosteoarthritis, and epilepsy. trophic changes, tissue changes, glycemic control both directly, andSimilarly, some aromatherapists tenderness, and immobility at spinal indirectly through behavior12report benefits in conditions as segmental levels T5-T7, T8-T10, and (McGrady,1999). Depression anddiverse as infertility, acne, diabetes, T11-L2 bilaterally.
A total of 92 subjects were through relaxation and self-hypnosis
included in the study. After (guided imagery) 13(Davidson,1978)
Yoga and Diabetes
c o n t r o l l i n g f o r a g e , s e x , and (Stetter,1994)
“Studies in a systematic search hypertension, and clinical
yielded 32 articles published depression, the only significant several areas of diabetes self-care
between 1980 and April 2007 and finding was an association between behavior improved in a group of
found “yoga interventions are type 2 diabetes mellitus and tissue patients who listened to guided
generally effective in reducing body changes at T11-L2 on the right side imagery tapes 15(Wichowski,1999).
and high cholesterol, but only a few type 2 diabetes mellitus and significantly lowered blood glucose,
studies examined long-term hypertension demonstrated A1C, muscle tension, depression,
significant associations with tissue and anxiety in subjects (McGinnis,
In another study researchers said, changes at T11-L2 bilaterally for the McGrady et al, 2005). Thermal
“there is growing evidence that yoga left side and for the right side.
The only consistent finding in this combination with other mind-body
intervention for Type 2 Diabetes study was an association between techniques, can improve quality of
type 2 diabetes mellitus and tissue life and the level of activity by
We identified 25 eligible studies, changes at T11-L2 on the right side. improving blood flow, pain,
overall, these studies suggest Potential explanations for this neuropathy, healing ulcers.16
beneficial changes in several risk finding include reflex viscerosomatic (Galper,2003).
indices, including glucose tolerance changes directly related to the
and insulin sensitivity, lipid profiles, progression of type 2 diabetes program can improve compliance in
anthropometric characteristics, blood mellitus, a spurious association diabetics of both types and improve
p r e s s u r e , o x i d a t i v e s t r e s s , attributable to confounding visceral glycemic control in Type II
24 Issues per Year TheBurnhamReview.com 2 (c) 2007 Kimberly Burnham 8-19 Diabetes
estimates, the number of people tentatively dubbed “type 3 diabetes”
Diabetes Herbal Therapy NIH
worldwide with diabetes climbed in early 2005 when researchers
Says Gymnema Sylvestre Lowers
from 30 million in 1985 to 171 learned that your pancreas is not your
Serum Glucose Levels
million in 2000. Some 4 percent to 6 only organ that produces insulin.
Going to the gym and working out percent of adults aged 20 and over Your brain also produces insulin, and
supports people managing the signs are now affected.
In a 2007 study by Dr. David W. survival of your brain cells.
cholesterol as well as other liver and Dunstan, of the International
blood sugar imbalances. Taking an Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, levels are typically associated with
herb called Gymnema has also been Australia, investigators found that improved health, the opposite
found effective in managing blood “the more time women spent appears to be true for your brain.
sugar levels in Type 1 diabetics as television viewing, the higher their
blood glucose levels two hours after your brain contributes to the
Like working out at the gym, they took the glucose test-drink.” degeneration of your brain cells, and
taking the herbal supplement, This study linked time spent doing studies have found that people with
Gymnema it is not a quick fix, but sedentary activities such as watching lower levels of insulin and insulin
according to the National Health TV to over all higher blood sugar receptors in their brain often have
Institute 18 (NIH,2008) can be used as levels.
by diabetics and adults wanting to a health care professional if the University has found that a toxic
balance out blood sugar and person is also taking blood sugar protein may be rendering your
lowering drugs or medications for neurons insulin resistant and
Traditionally, Gymnema has been lowering cholesterol. The NIH notes blocking your memory function.
u se d a s a n a n t i m i c r o b ial , that “increased effects may occur if
aphrodisiac, cancer, cardiovascular taken in combination with herbs or between Alzheimer’s disease and
disease, constipation, cough, supplements that lower cholesterol diabetes came out in 2004, when it
digestive stimulant, gout, high blood such as fish oil, garlic, guggul, or was revealed that people with
pressure, laxative, liver disease, liver niacin.“19(Anathan,2003), 20 diabetes might have a 65 percent
protection, malaria, obesity, (Cicero,2004),21(Khare,1983), higher risk of developing
rheumatoid arthritis, snake venom 2 2 ( M e i s e l m a n , 1 9 7 0 ) , 2 3 Alzheimer’s disease.”
antidote, stomach ailments, uterine (Shanmugasundaram,1990), and24
because taking Gymnema affects the Is Alzheimer's a Form of Diabetes?
More evidence has been uncovered brain just as it protects the rest of
At this point researchers are that Alzheimer’s disease may your body from diabetes.
looking at exercises, herbal actually be a third form of diabetes,
medicine, manual therapies, massage according to researchers from your nutritional type.
therapy, Yoga, Integrative Manual Northwestern University.
“Insulin and insulin receptors in in your diet, such as by taking a krill
and medications to find ways to stem your brain are crucial for learning oil supplement. A diet rich in
the rise in death and significant and memory, and it’s known that omega-3 fats has been found to ward
quality of life problems secondary to these components are lower in off both Alzheimer’s disease and
diabetes. The health care costs and people with Alzheimer’s disease. In diabetes.”25 (Mercola,2007),
loss of work place productivity due your brain, insulin binds to an insulin 26(Pilcher,2006) and 27 (MLA,2007).
to diabetes is also driving the receptor at a synapse, which triggersresearch.
a mechanism that allows nerve cells Freidreich’s Ataxia
According to the latest World to survive and memories to form.
24 Issues per Year TheBurnhamReview.com 3 (c) 2007 Kimberly Burnham 8-19 Diabetes
system disorder causing loss of 50-micron range, with the best was shut away from the actions ofbalance and coordination. Sufferers absorption occurring at 9.4 the immune system, shielded fromof this condition may also have heart microns.30 (TheraSauna,2008).
Conditions That Have Been that's not how it is at all. In fact,
techniques may have therapeutic Successfully Treated with an Infrared thanks to the scientific detectivebenefit to this condition."28 (Touch of Sauna, include Diabetes, TMJ work of Kevin Tracey, MD, it turnsHealth,2008).
Arthritis, Cancer Pain, Traumatic out that the brain talks directly to theArthritis, Duodenal Ulcers, Bursitis, immune system, sending commands
Measuring Diabetes Results
In s o m n i a , a n d R h eum at oi d that control the body's inflammatory
In a study “to determine the Arthritis31. (Naturopath,2008) and32 response to infection and
correlation between strength and (Aetna,2008).
intercorrelation between the Diabetes, Collagen and Green Tea
a novel way to treat diseases
"Diabetes leads to modification of triggered by a dangerous
group of subjects with diabetes collagen such as advanced glycation inflammatory response.
mellitus (DM) and transmetatarsal and cross-linking which play an
amputation (TMA), researchers important role in the pathogenesis of executive of The Feinstein Institute
looked at “30 subjects with DM and diabetes mellitus.
The present study reveals that “stimulation of the vagus nerve could
were studied. Function was measured green tea is effective in reducing the block a rogue inflammatory response
using Functional Reach Test (FR), modification of tail tendon collagen and treat a number of diseases,
Physical Performance Test (PPT), in diabetic rats. Thus green tea may including life-threatening sepsis.
Sickness Impact Profile (SIP), and have a therapeutic effect in the
walking speed for 15.24 m. Strength treatment of glycation induced brainstem and snakes down from the
measurements were taken using a complications of diabetes."33 brain to the heart and on through to
Iso and colleagues reported that are now studying ways of altering the
of hip and knee muscle strength and consumption of green tea and coffee brain's response or targeting the
function provides some evidence that could significantly reduce the risk for immune system itself as a way to
rehabilitation should focus on t y p e 2 . 3 4 ( I s o , 2 0 0 6 ) a n d control diseases.
strengthening hip and knee extensors 35(Chen,2006).
For ages, plants containing vagus nerve speaks directly to the
relationships between walking speed flavonoids have been used to treat immune system through a
and strength, PPT, FR and SIP diabetes in Indian medicine. The neurochemical called acetylcholine.
suggest that the simple measure of green tea flavonoid has been shown And stimulating the vagus nerve sent
walking speed is a useful functional to have insulin-like activity as well commands to the immune system to
as insulin-enhancing activity. stop pumping out toxic inflammatory
TheraSauna Far Infra-Red
responses. He calls this network "the
The human body can best absorb Vagus, Immune and Acetylcholine
natural way to control the
infrared energy in the 3- to
"It used to be dogma that the brain i n f l a m m a t o r y r e s p o n s e .
24 Issues per Year TheBurnhamReview.com 4 (c) 2007 Kimberly Burnham 8-19 Diabetes
Strategies may include shifting to complicate decision-making and
conditions like Crohn's disease, indoor activities or adapting to less delay treatment initiation inDiabetes and rheumatoid arthritis to favourable conditions; increasing conditions such as ataxia, headaches,Alzheimer's, where scientists have dose/number of glucose-lowering arthritis, neuropathy, type 1 diabetesidentified a strong inflammatory medications during the winter and mellitus, and others.43 (Helms,2005).
reducing these during the summer, in Blood Chemistry
Tracery has also written a book anticipation of seasonal variations
called "Fatal Sequence," about the and examining the impact of bright said, “the Law of the Artery is
double-edge sword of the immune light therapy on activity and A1C Supreme.“
Diabetes, Depression, Nutrition
s u n l i g h t h o u r s d e c l i n e . 4 1
and Physical Activity
occurring among adults with type 2 Physical Activity
Many people use Integrative diseases . He also considered that
injury and complications such as Manual Therapy (IMT) to decrease a n a t o m i c a l l e s i o n s c a u s e dblindness, kidney failure, heart pain, increase energy levels and physiological malfunction . e .g .
disease, and stroke.
enable them to be more physically Dislocation of the hips is a frequent
Higher physical activity levels are active.
Research has shown that physical (Atkinson,1978).
control, as measured by hemoglobin activity can: Lower your blood Upon the principle that the bloodA1C. A 1% absolute increase in A1C glucose and your blood pressure. is our curative agent, will this bloodis associated with an 18% increased Lower your bad cholesterol and raise not give us the best indication ofrisk for heart disease or stroke.
your good cholesterol. Improve your destruction going on within the
Among Canadians with type 2 body's ability to use insulin. Lower body? All the tissues of the body are
diabetes, we postulate that declines your risk for heart disease and stroke. bathed with blood and lymph, and itin walking associated with colder Keep your heart and bones strong. seems only natural to look to thetemperatures and inclement weather Keep your joints flexible. Lower blood for pathology within thesemay contribute to annual post-winter your risk of falling. Help you lose tissues. increases in A1C levels.
weight. Reduce your body fat. Give If the blood contains an abnormal
In this study assessments included you more energy. Reduce your stress amount of one or more of its
use of a pedometer with a concealed 42(NDIC,2008).
Gluten and Diabetes
(e.g. food frequency, depressive presence of specific serum
For more information and
Although we cannot alter weather ingestion has increasingly been
patterns to favour active lifestyles, found to be associated with other
24 e-Newsletters per year $100
we can design treatment strategies conditions not usually correlated
t h a t t a k e s e a s o n a l a n d with gluten intolerance. The
weather-related variations into subsequent diversity of the clinical
24 Issues per Year TheBurnhamReview.com 5 (c) 2007 Kimberly Burnham 8-19 Diabetes
PubMed Abstracts http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
1. WCA (2007). "Research Explores Chiropractic's Effect On Diabetes." World Chiropractic Alliance (WCA): [Full
Text] http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/62500.php and JVSR; http://www.jvsr.com
2. Head, K. A. (2006). "Peripheral neuropathy: pathogenic mechanisms and alternative therapies." Altern Med Rev
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3. Field, T., M. Hernandez-Reif, et al. (1997). "Massage therapy lowers blood glucose levels in children with
Diabetes Mellitus. ." Touch Research Institute and Diabetes Spectrum ,10, 237-239.: [Abstract]
4. Vickers, A. and C. Zollman (1999). "ABC of complementary medicine: Massage Therapy." BMJ 319:6 Nov: [Full
http://www.cam-research-group.co.uk/POI/ABC%20of%20Complementary%20Medicine%20-%20Massage%20therapies%20BMJ%20319%20pg1254Vickers%20and%20Zollman.pdf and www.bmj.com.
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18. National Institute of Health (2008) [Full Text] http://medlineplus.gov/ Gymnema sylvestre [Full Text]www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/patient-gymnema.html19. Ananthan R, Baskar C, NarmathaBai V, et al. Antidiabetic effect of Gymnema montanum leaves: effect on lipid
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peroxidation induced oxidative stress in experimental diabetes. Pharmacol Res 2003;48(6):551-556.
20. Cicero AF, Derosa G, Gaddi A. What do herbalists suggest to diabetic patients in order to improve glycemiccontrol? Evaluation of scientific evidence and potential risks. Acta Diabetol 2004;41(3):91-98.
21. Khare AK, Tondon RN, Tewari JP. Hypoglycaemic activity of an indigenous drug (Gymnema sylvestre,"Gurmar") in normal and diabetic persons. Indian J Physiol Pharm 1983;27:257-258.
22. Meiselman HL, Halpern BP. Effects of Gymnema sylvestre on complex tastes elicited by amino acids andsucrose. Physiol Behav 1970;5(12):1379-1384.
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24. Yeh GY, Eisenberg DM, Kaptchuk TJ, et al. Systematic review of herbs and dietary supplements for glycemiccontrol in diabetes. Diabetes Care 2003;26(4):1277-1294.
2 5 . M e r c o l a , J ( 2 0 0 7 ) I s A l z h e i m e r ' s a F o r m o f D i a b e t e s ? [ F u l l T e x t ]http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2007/10/16/is-alzheimer-s-a-form-of-diabetes.aspx26. Pilcher, H. (2006). "Alzheimer's disease could be “type 3 diabetes”." The Lancet Neurology - Vol. 5, Issue 5,M
27. MLA Northwestern University (2007, September 27). Alzheimer's Disease Could Be A Third Form Of Diabetes.
S c i e n c e D a i l y. R e t r i e v e d N o v e m b e r 2 6 , 2 0 0 7 , f r o m h t t p : / / w w w . s c i e n c e d a i l y. c o m/releases/2007/09/070926113835.htm28. Touch of Health (2008). "Health Conditions." Touch of Health Website: [Full Text]http://www.touchofhealing.co.uk/ailments.html and www.bbc.co.uk/health.
29. Salsich, G. B. and M. J. Mueller (1997). "Relationships between measures of function, strength and walkingspeed in patients with diabetes and transmetatarsal amputation." Clin Rehabil 11(1): 60-7. [PubMed Abstract]http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list _uids=906536130. TheraSauna (2008) [Full Text] www.TheraSauna.com and www.TheBurnhamReview.com31. Naturopath (2008) [Full Text] www.holisticnaturopath.com/infared.htm32. Aetna Clincal Bulletins (2008). "Aetna Coverage Clinical Bulletins." [Full Text]http://www.aetna.com/cpb/medical/data/300_399/0394.html.
33. Babu, P. V., K. E. Sabitha, et al. (2008). "Effect of green tea extract on advanced glycation and cross-linkingof tail tendon collagen in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats." Food Chem Toxicol 46(1): 280-5. [PubMedA
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=1788427534. Iso H, Date C, Wakai K, Fukui M, Tamakoshi A. The relationship between green tea and total caffeine intakeand risk for self-reported type 2 diabetes among Japanese adults. Ann Intern Med. 2006;144:554-6235. Chen, R. (2006). "Green tea, coffee, and diabetes." Ann Intern Med 145(8): 633; author reply 634-5. [Full Text]http://www.annals.org/cgi/reprint/145/8/634.pdf36. Anderson RA, Polansky MM. Tea enhances insulin activity. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:7182-6.
37. Tsuneki H, Ishizuka M, Terasawa M, Wu JB, Sasaoka T, Kimura I. Effect of green tea on blood glucose levelsand serum proteomic patterns in diabetic (db/db) mice and on glucose metabolism in healthy humans. BMCPharmacol. 2004;4:18.and38. Mascitelli, L. and F. Pezzetta (2006). "Green tea, coffee, and diabetes." Ann Intern Med 145(8): 634; authorreply 634-539. Cheng, T. O. (2006). "Green tea, coffee, and diabetes." Ann Intern Med 145(8): 633-4; author reply 634-5. [FullText] http://www.annals.org/cgi/reprint/145/8/634.pdf40. Talan, J. (2007). "Scientists Discover A Direct Route From The Brain To The Immune System." The FeinsteinInstitute for Medical Research: [Abstract] http://tinyurl.com/ylclr6 and [Full Text]http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2007-10/nsij-sda102307.php.
41. Dasgupta, K., C. Chan, et al. (2007). "Walking behaviour and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: seasonal and
24 Issues per Year TheBurnhamReview.com 7 (c) 2007 Kimberly Burnham 8-19 Diabetes
gender differences--study design and methods." Cardiovasc Diabetol 6: 1. [Full Text]http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=1783642&blobtype=pdf42. NDIC (2008). "What I need to know about Physical Activity and Diabetes." National Diabetes InformationClearinghouse: [Full Text] http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/physical_ez/.
43. Helms, S. (2005). "Celiac disease and gluten-associated diseases." Altern Med Rev 10(3): 172-92. [Full Text]http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/10/3/172.pdf44. Atkinson, B. W. (1978). "History of manual therapy." The Journal of the Hong Kong Physiotherapy AssociationVolume 2, 1978-79: [Full Text] http://sunzi1.lib.hku.hk/hkjo/view/25/2500006.pdf.
4 5 . M i l l a r d , F. P . (1922). Appl i ed Ana t o m y o f t h e Lym p h a t i cs , [ F u l l T ex t ]w w w . m e r i d i a n i n s t i t u t e . c o m / e a m t / f i l e s / m i l l a r d / m i l l c o n t . h t m l a n dwww.meridianinstitute.com/eamt/files/millard/millch15.html and R.M. Ashley, D. O., Detroit, Mich. The Role ofthe Artery is Supreme.
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Anderson, N. L., R. F. Wack, L. Calloway, T. E. Hetherington, and J. B. Williams. 1999. Cardiopulmonary effect and efficacy of propofol as an anesthetic agent in Brown Tree Snakes, Boiga irregularis . Bulletin of the Association of Reptile and Amphibian Veterinarian 9:9-15. Abstract: Nine wild-caught brown tree snakes, Boiga irregularis , were anesthetized with 5 mg/kg