Microsoft word - bachelor of pharmacy.doc
BACHELOR OF PHARMACY
L T P Credits
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-I (Inorganic Pharm. Chemistry)
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-I (Inorganic Pharm. Chemistry) Practical
Pharmaceutics –I (General Pharmacy) Practical
Basic Electronics & Computer Applications
Basic Electronics & Computer Applications Practical
L T P Credits
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-II (Physical Chemistry)
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-II Practical (Physical Chemistry)
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-III (Organic Chemistry –I)
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-III Practical (Organic Chemistry –I)
Pharmaceutics-II (Unit Operation – I )
Human Anatomy, Physiology & Health Education –I
Human Anatomy, Physiology & Health Education – I Practical
CURRICULUM FOR SECOND YEAR BACHELOR OF PHARMACY
L T P Credits
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-IV (Organic Chemistry - II)
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-IV Practical (Organic Chemistry – II)
Pharmaceutics-III (Unit Operation – II)
Pharmaceutics-III (Unit Operation – II) Practical
Human Anatomy, Physiology & Pathophysiology of Common Diseases-
Pharmaceutics-IV Practical (Physical Pharmacy)
Human Anatomy, Physiology & Pathophysiology of Common Diseases-III
CURRICULUM FOR THIRD YEAR BACHELOR OF PHARMACY
L T P Credits
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-V (Biochemistry)
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-V (Biochemistry) Practical
Pharmaceutics-V (Pharmaceutical Technology – I)
Pharmaceutics-V Practical (Pharmaceutical Technology – I)
L T P Credits
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-VI (Medicinal Chemistry –I)
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-VI Practical (Medicinal Chemistry–I)
Pharmaceutics-VII (Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics)
Pharmaceutics-VII Practical (Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics)
Pharmaceutical Jurisprudence & Ethics.
CURRICULUM FOR FOURTH YEAR BACHELOR OF PHARMACY
L T P Credits
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-VII (Medicinal Chemistry II)
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-VII Practical (Medicinal Chemistry II)
Pharmaceutics-VIII (Pharmaceutical Technology –II)
Pharmaceutics-VIII Practical (Pharmaceutical Technology–II)
Pharmacognosy-V (Chemistry of Natural Products)
Pharmacognosy-V Practical (Chemistry of Natural Products)
L T P Credits
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-VIII (Medicinal Chemistry III)
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-VIII Practical (Medicinal Chemistry III)
Pharmacology IV (Clinical Pharmacy & Drug Interactions)
PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS – I
1. Significance of quantitative analysis in quality control, Different techniques of
analysis, Preliminaries and definitions, Significant figures, Rules for retaining significant digits, Types of errors, Mean deviation, Standard deviation, Statistical treatment of small data sets, Selection of sample, Precision and accuracy, Fundamentals of volumetric analysis, methods of expressing concentration, primary and secondary standards.
2. Acid Base Titrations
: Acid base concepts, Role of solvent, Relative strengths of
acids and bases, Ionization, Law of mass action, Common ion effect, Ionic product of water, pH, Hydrolysis of salts, Henderson- Hesselbach equation, Buffer solutions, Neutralization curves, Acid- base indicators, Theory of indicators, Choice of indicators, mixed indicators, Polyprotic system, Polyamine and amino acid systems, Amino acid titration, applications in assay H3PO4, NaOH, CaCO3 etc.
3. Oxidation Reduction Titrations :
Concepts of oxidation and reduction, Redox
reactions, strengths and equivalent weights of oxidizing and reducing agents, Theory of redox titrations, Redox indicators, Cell representations, Measurement of electrode potential, Oxidation –reduction curves, Iodimetry and Iodometry, Titrations involving ceric sulphate, potassium iodate, potassium bromate, potassium permanganate, titanous chloride and Sodium 2, 6-dichlorophenol indophenol.
4. Precipitation Titrations :
Precipitation reactions, Solubility products, Effect of acids,
temperature and solvent upon the solubility of a precipitate.Argentometric titrations and titrations involving ammonium or potassium thiocyanate, mercuric nitrate and barium sulphate, Indicators, Gay-lussac method; Mohrs method, Volhard’s method and Fajan’s method.
5. Gravimetric Analysis :
Precipitation techniques, Solubility products; The colloidal
state, Supersaturation co-precipitration, Post- precipitation, Digestional washing of the precipitate, Filtration, Filter papers and crucibles, Ignition, Thermogravimetric curves, specific examples like barium sulphate, aluminium as aluminium oxide, calcium as calcium oxalate and magnesium as magnesium pyrophosphate, Organic precipitants.
PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS – I
Course Code: PHA 311
The students should be introduced to the main analytical tools through
demonstrations. They should have a clear understanding of a typical analytical balance, the requirements of a good balance, weights, care and use of balance, methods of weighing and errors in weighing. The students should also be acquainted with the general apparatus required in various analytical procedures.
1. Standardization of analytical weights and calibration of volumetric apparatus.
2. Acid Base Titrations :
Preparation and standardization of acids and bases;
some exercises related with determination acids and bases separately or in mixture form, some official assay procedures e.g. boric acid should also be covered.
3. Oxidation Reduction Titrations :
Precipitation and standardization of some
redox titrants e.g. potassium permanganate, potassium dichromate, iodine, sodium thiosulphate, etc. Some exercises related to determination of oxidizing and reducing agents in the sample should be covered. Exercises involving potassium iodate, potassium bromate, iodine solution, titanous chloride, sodium 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol and ceric ammonium sulphate.
4. Precipitation titrations :
Preparation and standardization of titrants like silver
nitrate and ammonium thiocyanate, Titrations according to Mohr’s, Volhard’s and Fajan’s methods.
5. Gravimetric Analysis:
Preparation of gooch crucible for filtration and use of
sintered glass crucible; Determination of water of hydration, Some exercises related to gravimetric analysis should be covered.
PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY – I
(INORGANIC PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY)
Credits - 3
An outline of methods of preparation, uses, sources of impurities, tests for purity and identity, including limit tests for iron, arsenic, lead , heavy metals, chloride, sulphur and special tests if any, of the following classes of inorganic pharmaceuticals included in Indian Pharmacopoeia.
Acids and Bases
: Buffers, Water.
Acidifying agents, Antacids, Protectives and Adsorbents,
Major intra- and Extra-cellular Electrolytes
: Physiological ions, Electrolytes used for
replacement therapy, acid-base balance and combination therapy.
Essential and Trace Elements
: Transition elements and their compounds of
pharmaceutical importance: Iron and haematinics, mineral supplements.
Cationic and anionic components of inorganic drugs useful for systemic effects
Protectives, Astringents and Anti-infectives.
Gases and Vapours
: Oxygen, Anesthetics and Respiratory stimulants.
Dental Products :
Dentifrices, Anti-caries agents.
Complexing and chelating agents used in therapy.
structure chemical properties and uses of Sclerosing agents,
expectorants, emetics, poisons and antidotes, sedatives etc.
Pharmaceutical Aids used in Pharmaceutical industry. Anti-oxidants, preservatives, filter aids, adsorbents, diluents, excipients, suspending agents, colorants etc.
12. Inorganic Radio Pharmaceuticals:
Nuclear radio pharmaceuticals, Reactions,
Nomenclature, Methods of obtaining their standards and units of activity, measurement of activity, clinical applications and dosage, hazards and precautions. Sources of impurities & their control, limit test for iron, arsenic, lead, heavy metals, chloride &
PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY – I
(INORGANIC PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY)
Course Code: PHA – 313
Credits - 2
1. To perform limit test of chloride, sulphate, Iron, Heavy metal and arsenic in the given
2. Salt analysis . 3. Preparation of chemical compounds elonging to the different classes.
All identification tests for pharmacopoeial inorganic pharmaceuticals and qualitative tests for cations and anions should be covered.
Course Code: PHA-314
1. History of Pharmacy :
Origin & development of pharmacy, scope of pharmacy,
introduction to pharmacopoeias with special reference to I.P, B.P., U.S.P,.
2. Pharmaceutical Additives :
Coloring, flavouring & sweetening agents, cosolvents,
preservatives, surfactants & their applications, antioxidants.
3.Pharmaceutical calculations :
Posology, calculation of doses for infants, adults and
elderly patients; Enlargig and reducing recipes,percentage solutions, allegation, alcohol
dilution, proof spirit, isotonic solutions, displacement values, etc.Metrology ,latin terms &
4. Principles involved and procedures adopted in dispensing of :
Monophasic liquid dosage forms
Solutions taken orally, solutions applied externally,solutions instilled into body
cavities. Biphasic liquiod dosage forms
Emulsions & suspensions Official solutions.
Semisolid dosage forms
ointments,pastes,creams Solid dosage forms.
5. Incompatibilities :
Physical and chemical incompatibilities, inorganic incompatibilities including
incompatibilities of metals and their salts, non-metals, acids, alkalis, organic
incompatibilities, Purine bases, alkaloids, pyrazolone derivatives, amino acids,
quaternary ammonium compounds, carbohydrates, glycosides, anesthetics, dyes,
surface active agents, correction of incompatibilities. Therapeutic incompatibilities.
PHARMACEUTICS – I
Course Code: PHA-315
1. Dispensing of prescriptions falling under the categories : Mixtures, solutions,
emulsions, creams, ointments, powders, suppositories, opthalmics, capsules, pastes, jellies, pastiles, lozenges, pills, tablet triturates, lotions, liniments, inhalations, paints, etc.
2. Identification of various types of incompatibilities in prescription, correction of thereof
Dispensing procedures involving pharmaceutical calculations, pricing of prescriptions and dosage calculations for pediatric and geriatric patients.
4. Dispensing of prescriptions involving adjustment of tonicity.
BASIC ELECTRONICS AND COMPUTER APPLICATIONS
1. Basic Electronics
Semiconductors, p-n junction diode, LED, Photodiode and its uses, Half & Full wave rectifiers, Transistors configuration, Transistor amplifiers, introduction to integrated circuit, photo cell and photo multiplier tubes.
2.1 Introduction to Computers
Need and Role, Definition, Characteristics and Applications, Hardware: Basic block diagram
components, System & Application Softwares, Data & its Representation.
2.2 Operating System
Introduction, Functions,Working with DOS and Windows.
2.3 Computer Networks & Internet
Introduction , Types, Internet: History, usage and applications , Intranet.
2.4 Computer Languages
Generations, Translators (Assembler, Interpreter and compiler), Programming
Techniques, Algorithms & Flowcharts 2.5 ‘C’ Language
Expressions & Operators, Input/Output Statements, Control Statements, Array,
Functions 2.6 Introduction to MS Office
2.7 Computer applications in Pharmacy.
BASIC ELECTRONICS AND COMPUTER APPLICATIONS
1. Working with operating systems like MS-DOS, Windows 2. Study of Software packages like MS-Word, MS-Excel and MS-Power point 3. Packages related to Medical Applications 4. How to search data, workable knowledge of Internet 5. Cyber etiquettes 6. Simple programs in C language
To check whether the given number is palindrome or not.
To find whether the given number is the prime.
To find sum and average of n integer using linear array
To find factorial of a given number using function.
Course Code: MAS-
Equations reducible to quadratics, simultaneous equations (linear and
quadratic), determinants, prperties of solution of simultaneous equations by Cramer’s
rule, matrices, definition of special kinds of matrices, arithmetic operations on matrices, inverse of a matrix, solution of simultaneous equations by matrices, pharmaceutical applications of determinants and matrices. Evaluation of En1, En2, and En3, mensuration and its pharmaceutical applications.
Measurement of angle, T- ratios, addition, subtraction and
transformation formulae, T- ratios of multiple, submultiple, allied and certain angles,
Application of logarithms in pharmaceutical computations.
Analytical Plane Geometry :
Certain co-ordinates, distance between two points, area
of triangle, a locus of point, straight line slope and intercept form, double- intercept
form, normal (perpendicular form), slope-point and two point form, general equation of
Limits and functions, definition of differential coefficient, diffentiation of standard
functions, including function of a function ( Chain rule). Differentiation of implicit
functions, logarithmic differentiation, parametric differentiation, successive
differentiation. (B) Integral
Integration as inverse of differentiation, indefinite integrals of standard forms, integration by parts, substitution and partial fractions, formal evaluation of definite integrals.
: Its structure and non -living inclusions; mitosis and meiosis, different
types of plant tissues and their functions.
Morphology and histology of root , stem , bark , wood , leaf, flower fruit and seed. Modification of root and stem.
General Survey of Animal Kingdom, Structure and life history of parasites as illustrated by amoeba, entamoeba, trypanosoma, plasmodium, taenia, ascaris, schistosoma, oxyuris, and ancyclostoma.
General Structurre and life history of insects like mosquito, housefly, mites and silkworm.
REMEDIAL BIOLOGY PRACTICAL
1. Morphology of plant parts indicated in theory. 2. Care, use and type of microscopes. 3. Gross identification of slides of structure and life cycle of lower plants, animals
4. Morphology plant parts indicated in theory. 5. Preparation, microscopic examination of stem, root and leaf of monocot and
6. Structures of human parasites and insects mentioned in theory with the help of
English for Health Professionals
Students of professional courses have tendency to neglect the language content. The
paper ‘English for Health Professionals / English for Professionals’ is introduced with a view
to develop the communication skills of the students in writing and spoken English. The
emphasis will be fully on the practical aspects of language use, and not on the literature.
The course content may also help the students to take up overseas examinations in
English proficiency like the TOEFL, PLAB, and GAT. SECTION-I
1. Etiquette- Telephone, table (different ways of enhancing “oneself”)
2. Parts of speech
1. Orientation to different types of letter- Social, business (formal and informal)
2. Essay writing- Descriptive, narrative, and reflective
3. Précis or summary writing SECTION-III
Through the conversation and discussion try to focus on developing their ability to talk
about objects and experiences around them.
1. JAM session
3. Group discussion
4. Role plays
PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY – II
Course code: PHA-320
1. Behaviour of Gases:
Kinetic theory of gases, deviation from behaviours and
2. The Liquid state:
Physical Properties (surface tension, parachor, viscosity,
refractive index, optical rotation, dipole moments and chemical constituents).
Ideal and real solutions, solutions of gases in liquids, - colligative
properties, partition coefficient, conductance and its measurement, Debye Huckel theory.
First, second and third laws, Zeroth law, absolute
temperature scale, thermochemical equations.
Freudlich and Gibbs adsorption, isotherms, Langmuir theory of
6. Electro chemistry :
Faraday’s Laws of Electrolysis, Electrolytic conductance &
its measurement, molar & equivalent conductivity, its variation with dilution. Kohlrausch law,Arrhenius theory, degree of ionisation & Ostwald dilution law. Transport number & migration of ion, Hittorfs theoretical device, theory of strong elecrolytes (Debye Huckle theory).]
7. Chemical Kinetics:
Zero, first and second order reactions, complex reactions,
theories of reaction kinetics, characteristics of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalyasis, acid base and enzyme catalysis.
8. Phase equilibria :
Phase, component, degree of freedom, phase rule (excluding
derivation). Cooling curves & Phase diagrams for one & two component system involving eutectics, ongruent & incongruent melting point (examples-water, sulphur, KI-H2O, NaCI-H2O system). Distribution law & application to solvent extraction.
PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY – II (PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY)
Course code: PHA-321
1. To determine refractive index of given liquids and find out the contribution of carbon,
hydrogen and oxygen in molar refraction of a compound.
2. To determine the specific rotation of sucrose at various concentrations and
3. To determine the cell constant, verify Ostwald dilution law and perform
4. To determine rate constant of simple reaction. 5. Determination of cell constant, verify Ostwald dilution law and perform
6. Determination of surface tension. 7. Determination of partition co-efficient. Determination of viscosity. 8. pH determination by different methods. 9. Determination of solubility.
PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY –III
Course code: PHA-322
The subject of organic chemistry will be treated in its modern perspective keeping for the
sake of convenience, the usual classification of organic compounds: 1. Structure and Properties :
Atomic structure, Atomic orbitals, Molecular orbital theory,
wave equation, Molecular orbitals, Bonding and antibonding orbitals, Covalent bond, Hybrid orbitals, intramolecular forces, Bond dissociation energy, Polarity of bonds, Polarity of molecules, structure and physical properties, intermolecular forces, Acids and bases.
2. Stereochemistry :
Isomerism and nomenclature and associated physicochemical
properties, optical activity, stereoisomerism, specification of configuration, Reactions involving stereoisomers, chirality, chiral reagents conformations.
3. Structure, Nomenclature, Preparation and Reactions of :
Alkynes; Cycloalkanes, Dienes, Benzene, Polynuclear aromatic compounds, Arenes, Alkyl halides, Alcohols, Ethers, Epoxides, Amines, Phenols, Aldehydes and ketones, carboxylic acids, Functional derivatives of carboxylic acids, Reactive intermediates- carbocations, carbanions, carbenes, nitrene and nitrenium ions.
PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY –III
Course code: PHA-323
1. The student should be introduced to the various laboratory techniques through demonstrations involving synthesis of selected organic compounds ( e.g. aspirin, p-bromoacetanilide, anthraquinone from anthracine, reduction of nitrobenzene etc.) 2.
Identification of organic compounds and their derivatisation.
Introduction to the use of stereomodels.
4. Purification of solvents like Benzene, chloroform, acetone and Preparation of absolute alcohol. 5. Synthesis
involving benzoylation, acetylation, bromination,
reduction & oxidation. 6. Purification of solvents like Benzene, chloroform, acetone and preparation of absolut alcohol.
PHARMACEUTICS - II
(UNIT OPERATION- I)
1. Unit Operations
: Introduction, basic laws. 2. Stoichiometry :
Unit processes, material and energy balances, molecular units, mole
fraction, tie substance, gas laws, mole volume, primary and secondary quantities,
equilibrium state, rate processes, steady and unsteady states, dimensionless formulae,
dimensionless groups, different types of graphic representation, mathematical problems. 3. Heat transfer :
Source of heat, heat transfer, steam and electricity as heating media,
determination of requirement of amount of steam/electrical energy, steam pressure, Boiler
capacity, mathematical problems on heat transfer. 4.Fluid Flow :
Types of flow, Reynold’s number, Viscosity, Concept of boundary layer,
basic equations of fluid flow, valves, flowmeters, manometers and measurement of flow
and pressure. 5. Material Handling Systems :
a. Liquid handling – Different types of pumps. b. Gas handling - Various types of fans, blowers and compressors. c. Solid handling – Bins, Bunkers, Conveyors, Air transport.
6. Filtration and centrifugation:
Theory of filtration, filter aids, filter media, industrial
filters including filter press, rotary filter, edge filter, etc. Factors affecting filtration,
mathematical problems on filtration, optimum-cleaning cycle in batch filters, Principles of
centrifugation, industrial centrifugal filters, and centrifugal sedimenters. 7. Crystallization:
Characteristics of crystals like – purity, size, shape, geometry, habit,
forms size and factors affecting them. Solubility curves and calculation of yields. Material
and heat balances around Swenson Walker Crystallizer. Supersaturation theory and its
limitations, Nucleation mechanisms, crystal growth. Study of various types of crystallizer,
tanks, agitated batch, Swenson Walker, Single vacuum, circulating magma and crystal
Crystallizer, caking of crystals and its prevention. Numerical problems on yields. 8. Material of Construction :
General study of composition , corrosion, resistance,
Properties and applications of materials of construction with special reference to stainless
steel and glass. 9. Industrial Hazards and Safety Precautions
: Mechanical, Chemical, Electrical, fire
and dust hazards. Industrial dermatitis, Accident records, Radiation hazards. etc.
HUMAN ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY & HEALTH EDUCATION –I
a. Introduction to human body & organization of human body.
b. Functional & structural characteristics of cell.
c. Detailed structure of cell membrane & physiology of transport process.
d. Structural & functional characteristics of tissues- epithelial, connective, muscle and
Structure, composition & functions of skeleton. Classification of joints, types of movements
Anatomy & physiology of skeletal & smooth muscle, neurotransmission, physiology of
skeletal muscle contraction, energy metabolism, types of muscle contraction, muscle tone. Unit-III
Haemopoietic system: Composition & function of blood & its elements, erythopoesis, blood
groups, blood coagulation.
a) Concepts of health & disease: Disease causing agents & prevention of disease.
b) Classification of food requirements: Balanced diet, Nutritional deficiency disorders, their
treatment & prevention, specification for drinking water. Unit-V
Basic anatomy and physiology of the eye (vision), ear (hearing), taste
buds, nose (smell), and skin (superficial receptors). Lymphatic System
Composition, formation and circulation of lymphs, lymph node and spleen.
HUMAN ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY & HEALTH EDUCATION-I
1. Study of human skeleton. 2. Microscopic study of different tissues. 3. Estimation of haemoglobin in blood, Determination of bleeding time, clotting time, R.B.C, Count, Total leucocyte count, D.L.C. and E.S.R. 4. Recording of body temperature, pulse rate and blood pressure, basic understanding of Electrocardiogram – PQRST waves and their significance.
Course Code: MAS-408
Credit - 4
1. Differential Equations
: Revision of integral calculus, definition and formation of
differential equations, equations of first order and first degree, variable separable,
homogeneous and linear differential equations reducible to such types, linear
differential equations of the order greater than one with constant coefficients,
complementary function and particular integral, simultaneous linear differential
2. Laplace transforms :
Definition, transforms of elementary functions, properties of
linearity and shifting, inverse laplace transforms, transforms of derivatives, solution of
ordinary and simultaneous differential equations.
sample size, data organization, diagrammatic representation of data,bar
,pie, 2-D and 3-D diagrams, measures of central tendency, measures of dispersion,
Standard Deviation and standard error of means, coefficient of variation, probability and
events, Bayes’ theorem,probability distribution, elements of binomial and Poisson
distribution, normal distribution curve and properties, kurtosis and skewness, correlation
and regression analysis, method of least squares, statistical inference, Student’s and
paired t-test, F-test and elements of ANOVA, applications of statistical concepts in
PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS – II
and application in drug analysis and quality control of the
Miscellaneous Methods of Analysis :
Diazotisation titrations, Kjeldahl
method of nitrogen estimation, Karl-Fischer titration, Oxygen flask
Extraction procedures including separation of drugs from excipients
The following techniques will be discussed with relevant
examples of Pharmacopoeial products.
TLC, HPLC, GLC, HPTLC, Paper Chromatography and Column Chromatography.
PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS – II
1. Nonaqueous Titrations
: Preparation and standardization of perchloric acid and
sodium/potassium/lithium methoxides solutions; Estimations of some pharmacopoeial
2. Complexometric Titrations:
Preparations and standardization of EDTA solution,
some exercises related to pharmacopoeial assays by complexometric titrations.
3. Miscellaneous Determinations :
Exercises involving diazotisation, Kjeldahl, Karl-
Fischer, Oxygen flask combustion and gasometry methods. Determination of alcohol
content in liquid galenicals, procedure (BPC) shall be covered.
4. Experiments involving separation of drugs from excipients.
5. Chromatographic analysis of some pharmacopoeial products.
6. Exercises based on acid base titration in aqueous and non-aqueous media, oxidation
reduction titrations using potentiometric technique, Determination of acid-base
disassociation constants and plotting of titration curves using pH meter.
8. Exercises involving conductometric and polarograpic techniques.
PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY – IV
(ORGANIC CHEMISTRY – II)
Nucleophilic aromatic substitutions; α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds; conservation of
Electrocyclic, Cycloaddition and signatropic reactions.
– Nomenclature, Chemistry, preparation, properties and
Pharmaceutical importance of pyrrole, furan, thiophene, pyridine, pyrimidine, imidazole,
pyrazole, thiazole, benzimidazole, indole, phenothiazines.
Classification, structure, reactions, structure elucidation, identification of
Monosaccharides – Glucose and fructose.
Disaccharides – Sucrose, lactose and maltose.
Classification, identification, general methods of preparation and reactions of amino
acids and proteins.
Chemistry of lipids and Nucleic acids.
PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY – IV
(ORGANIC CHEMISTRY – II)
At least five exercises in synthesis involving various heterocyclic ring systems, An
exercise involving stereoselective synthesis of a compound. Resolution of racemic DL-
alanine or any other example. Workshop on molecular modelling of primary, secondary and
tertiary structures of proteins, molecular modeling on double helical structure of nucleic acid
showing hydrogen bonding. Identification of organic compounds with derivatization.
(UNIT OPERATION- II)
1. Evaporation :
Basic concept of phase equilibria, factor affecting evaporation,
evaporators, film evaporators, single effect and multiple effect evaporators,
mathematical problems on evaporation. 2. Distillation :
Raoult’s law, phase diagrams, volatality; simple steam and flash
distillations, principles of rectification, Mc. Cabe Thiele method for calculation of
number of theoretical plates, Azeotropic and extractive distillation. Mathematical
problems on distillation. 3. Drying :
Moisture content and mechanism of drying, rate of drying and time
drying calculations; classification and type of dryers, dryers used in pharmaceutical
industries and special drying methods. Mathematical problems in drying. 4. Size reduction and size separation :
Definition, objectives of size reduction,
factors affecting size reduction, laws governing energy and power requirements of
mills including ball mill, hammer mill, fluid energy mill, etc.
5. Mixing :
Theory of mixing, solid-solid, solid-liquid and liquid-liquid mixing
6.Dehumidification and Humidity Control :
Basic concepts and definition, wet
bulb and adiabatic saturation temperatures, Psychrometric chart and measurement
of humidity, application of humidity measurement
in pharmacy, equipments for dehumidification operations.
Refrigeration and Air conditioning:
Principal and applications of
(UNIT OPERATION- II)
Course Code: PHA-435
1. Measurement of flow of fluids and their pressure determination, Reynolds’s
number and calculation of Frictional losses.
2. Evaluation of filter media, determination of rate of filtration and study of factors
3. Experiments to demonstrate applications of centrifugation. 4. Thermometers and Psychrometric charts. 5. Determination of humidity- use of Dry bulb and Wet bulb. 6.Determination of rate of evaporation. 7.Experiments based on steam, extractive and azeotropic distillations. 8.Determination of rate of drying, free moisture content and bound moisture content. 9.Experiments to illustrate the influence of various parameters on the rate of drying 10.Experiments to illustrate principles of size reduction, laws governing energy and power requirements of size reduction. 11.Experiments to illustrate solid-solid mixing, determination of mixing efficiency using different types of mixers.
PHARMACOGNOSY – I
1. Definition, history, scope and development of Pharmacognosy.
2. Sources of drugs :
Biological, marine, mineral and plant tissue cultures as sources of
3. Classification of drugs:
Alphabetical, morphological, taxonomical, chemical and
pharmacological classification of drugs.
4. Plant taxonomy:
Study of the following families with special reference to medicinally
important plants- Apocynacae, Solanaceae, Compositeae, Umbellifereae, Leguminosae, Rubiaceae, Liliaceae, Labiatae, Cruciferae, Papaveraceae.
5. Cultivation, collection, processing and storage of crude drugs:
cultivation of medicinal plants. Types of soils and fertilizers of common use. Pest management and natural pest control agents. Plant hormones and their applications. Polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants.
6. Quality control of crude drugs:
Adulteration of crude drugs and their detection by
organoleptic, microscopic, physical chemical and biological methods of evaluation as per WHO guidelines.
7. Systematic pharmacognostic study of following :
a) Carbohydrates and derived products:
Agar, Algin, Guar gum, acacia, Honey,
Isabgol, Pectin, Starch, Sterculia and Tragacanth.
Bees wax, Castor oil, Cocoa butter, Cod liver oil, Hydnocarpus oil, Linseed
oil, Rice bran oil, Shark liver oil and Wool fat, Lard & Suet.
: Study of fibres used in pharmacy such as cotton, silk, wool, nylon glass-
d) Pharmaceutical aids :
Study of pharmaceutical aids like talc, diatomite, kaolin,
PHARMACOGNOSY – I
Course Code: PHA 437
1. Morphological characteristics of plant families mentioned in theory.
2. Microscopic measurements of cells and Cell contents :
calcium oxalate crystals ,Phloem fibres and other diagnostic characters.
3. Determination of leaf constants such as stomatal index, stomatal number, vein-
islet number, vein termination number and palisade ratio.
4. Identification of crude drugs belonging to carbohydrates and lipids. 5. Study of fibres and pharmaceutical aids. 6. Preparation of herbarium sheets.
HUMAN ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY & PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF COMMON DISEASES-II
Central Nervous System:
Functions of different parts of brain and spinal cord. Neurohumoral transmission in the
central nervous system, reflex action, electroencephalogram, specialized functions of the
brain. Cranial nerves and their functions. Autonomic Nervous System
Physiology and functions of the autonomic nervous system. Mechanism of neurohumoral
transmission the A.N.S. Unit-II:
Cell injury & Adaptation
Courses of cell injury, pathogenesis & morphology of cell injury. Cellular Adaptation
Atropy, hypertropy, aplasia, metaplasia, & dysplasia, intracellular accummulation &
pathophysiology of Neoplasm. Unit III
Basic mechanisms involved in the process of inflammation and repair Alterations in
vascular permeability and blood flow, migration of WBC’s, mediators of inflammation. Brief
outline of the process of repair. Pathophysiology of Joints disorder
Arthritis, gout, myasthenia gravis, spasticity, tetany, fatigue. Unit-IV: Demography and Family Planning,
Medical termination of pregnancy. First Aid :
Emergency treatment of shock, snake bites, burns, poisoning, fractures and
resuscitation methods. Communicable Diseases
Brief outline, their causative agents, modes of transmission and prevention (Chicken pox,
measles, influenza, diphtheria, whooping cough, tuberculosis, poliomyelities, helminthiasis,
malaria, filariasis, rabies, trachoma, tetanus, leprosy, syphillis, gonorrhoea, and AIDS). Miscellaneous
Pathophsiology of anaemia, AIDS, hypersensitivity, allergic conditions, epilepsy, Parkinson
& Alzeimer’s diseases pathophysiology of cataract, glaucoma etc.
PHARMACEUTICS – IV
1. Micromeretic and Powder Rheology :
Particle size and distribution. Average particle
size, number and weight distribution, particle number, methods for determining particle volume , optical microscopy, sieving , sedimentation, measurement, particle shape, specific surface, methods for determining surface area, permeability, adsorption, derived properties of powders, porosity, packing arrangement, densities, bulkiness and flow properties.
2. Surface and interfacial Phenomenon:
Liquid interface, surface and interfacial
tensions, surface free energy, measurement of of surface and interfacial tensions, spreading coefficient, adsorption at liquid interfaces, surface active agents, HLB classification, solubilization, detergency, adsorption at solid interfaces, solid-gas and solid –liquid interfaces, complex films, electrical properties of interface.
3. Viscosity and Rheology :
Newtonian systems, Law of flow, kinematic viscosity, effect
of temperature, non- Newtonian systems, pseudoplastic, dilatant, plastic, thixotropy in formulation, determination of viscosity, capillary, falling ball, rotational viscometers.
4. Dispersion Systems :
Colloidal Dispersions :
Definition, types, properties of colloids, protective colloids, applications of colloids in pharmacy;
Interfacial properties of suspended particles, settling in suspensions, theory of sedimentation, effect of Brownian movement, sedimentation of flocculated articles, sedimentation parameters, wetting of particles, controlled flocculation, flocculation in structured vehicles, rheological considerations;
Types, identification, theories, preparation & physical stability.
Classification of complexes, methods of preparation and analysis,
PHARMACEUTICS – IV
Course code: PHA-441
.Determination of particle size, particle size distribution and surface area using various methods of particle size analysis. 1. Determination of derived properties of powders like density, porosity,
2. Determination of surface / interfacial tension, HLB value and critical micellar
3. Study of rheological properties of various types of systems using different
4. Studies of different types of colloids and their properties. 5. Preparation of various types of suspensions and determination of their
6. Preparation and stability studies of emulsions. 7. Studies on different types of complexes and determination of their stability
1. Introduction to the scope of microbiology 2. Structure of bacterial cell 3. Classification of microbes and their taxonomy. Actinomycetes, bacteria,
4. Identification of microbes: Stains and types of staining techniques, electron
5. Nutrition, cultivation, isolation of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, viruses, etc. 6. Control of microbes by physical and chemical methods.
a. Disinfection, factors influencing disinfectants, dynamics of disinfection,
disinfectants, disinfectants and antiseptics and their evaluation.
b. Sterilization, different methods, validation of sterilization methods and
7. Sterility testing of all pharmaceutical products. 8. Immunity, primary and secondary, defensive mechanisms of body, microbial
9. Microbial assays of antibiotics, vitamins and amino acidsas per pharmacopoeia.
Experiments devised to prepare various types of culture media, subculturing of common
aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, fungus and yeast, various staining methods, various
methods of isolation and identification of microbes, sterilization techniques and their
validation, evaluation of antiseptics and disinfectants, testing the stability of pharmaceutical
products as per IP requirements, microbial assay of antibiotics and vitamins, etc.
PHARMACOGNOSY - II
: Study of Drugs containing Resins and Resin Combination like Colophony,
podophyllum, jalap, cannabis, capsicum, myrrh, asafoetida, balsam of tolu, balsam of peru,
benzoin, turmeric, ginger.
Study of tannins and tannin containing drugd like Gambir, black
2. Volatile Oils :
General methods of obtaining volatile oils from plants, Study of
volatile oils of Mentha, Spearmint, Cinnamon, Cassia, Orange peel, Clove, Coriander, Fennel, Caraway, Dill, Nutmeg, Eucalyptus, Chenopodium, Cardamom, Valerian, Lemon grass, Citronella.
3. Utilization of aromatic plants and derived products with special reference to
sandalwood oil, lemon grass oil, vetiver oil, geranium oil and eucalyptus oil.
4. Natural Allergans, Photosensitizing agents & fungal toxins
5. Chemotaxonomy of medicinal plants.
6. Phytochemical Screening
An introduction to extraction, isolation, & purification.
classification and properties of phytoconstituents.
Screening of alkaloids, saponins, cardenolides and bufadienolides, flavonoids
and leucoanthocyanidins, tannins and polyphenols, anthraquinones, cynogenetic glycosides, amino acids in plant extracts.
PHARMACOGNOSY - II
1. Identification of crude drugs mentioned in theory. 2. Microscopic studies of - selected crude drugs of volatile oils and their powders 3. Microscopic studies of - selected crude drugs and their powders mentioned
under the category of resin & tannins in theory with their chemical tests.
4. General chemical tests for alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, flavonoids, resins
HUMAN ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY & PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF COMMON DISEASES-
Parts of digestive system, their structure and functions. Various gastrointestinal secretions
& their role.
Pathology of disorders related to digestive system Peptic Ulcer, Ulcerative colitis, Crohns
disease, Zollinger- Ellison syndrome, Amoebiasis, typhoid, Hepatitis, Cirrhosis of liver,
Anatomy & physiology of urinary system, physiology of urine formation, acid- base balance,
pathophysiology of renal feature, glomerulonephiritis, Urinary tract infection. Reproductive system
Male & female reproductive system. Menstruation, Pathophysiology of sexually transmitted
diseases, spermatogenesis, oogenesis, pregnancy. Unit-III
Anatomy & Physiology of pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, control of
harmone secretion, pathophysiology of hypo & hyper secretion of endocrine glands & their
disorders e.g. – Diabetes mellitus. Unit-IV
Anatomy & function of respiratory structures, Mechanism of respiration, regulation of
respiration, pathophysiology of Asthma, Pneumonia, Bronchits, Emphysema, Tuberculosis. Unit-V
Functional Anatomy of heart, conducting system of heart, cardiac cycle, ECG (Electro
cardiogram). Pathophysiology of hypertension, Angina, CHF, myocardial infarction, cardiac
arrhythmias, Ischaemic heart disease, Arteriosclerosis.
1. Biochemical organization of the cell and transport processes across cell membrane.
2. The concept of free energy, determination of change in free energy from equilibrium
constant and reduction potential, bioenergetics, production of ATP and its biological
Nomenclature, enzyme kinetics and its mechanism of action, mechanism of
inhibition, enzymes and iso enzymes in clinical diagnosis.
Vitamins as co-enzymes and their significance. Metals as co-enzyme and
Conversion of polysaccharide to glucose –1-phosphate,
Glycolysis and fermentation and their regulation, Gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis,
Metabolism of galactose and galactosemia, Role of sugar nucleotides in biosynthesis, and
6.The Citric acid Cycle
: Significance, reaction and energetic of the cycle, Amphibolic role
: Oxidation of fatty acids, ß- oxidation & energetic, α-oxidation, ω
oxidation, Biosynthesis of ketone bodies and their utilization. Biosynthesis of saturated and
unsaturated fatty acids, control of lipid metabolism, Essential fatty acid and eicosanoids
(prostagladins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes), phospholipids and sphingolipids.
8. Biological oxidation
: Redox –
potential, enzymes and coenzymes involved in oxidation
reduction its control, The respiratory chain, its role in energy capture and its control,
Energetic of oxidative phosphorylation, inhibitors of respiratory chain and oxidative
phosphorylation. Mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation
9. Metabolism of Ammonia and nitrogen containing Monomers:
Biosynthesis of amino acids, Catabolism of amino acids, conversion of amino acids to
specialized products, assimilation of ammonia, ureacycle, Metabolism of sulphur containing
amino acids, Porphyry biosynthesis, and formation of pile pigments, hyperbilirubinemia,
purine biosynthesis, urine nucleotide interconversion, Pyrimidine biosynthesis, and
11. Biosynthesis of Nucleic Acids
: Brief introduction of genetic organization of the
mammalian genome, alteration and rearrangements of genetic material, Biosynthesis of
DNA and its replication, Mutation, physical and chemical mutagenesis / carcinogenesis,
DNA repair mechanism biosynthesis of RNA.
12. Brief account on genetic engineering, polymerase chain reactions.
1. Preparation of standard buffers (citrate, phosphate and carbonate) and
2. Separation of amino acids by chromatography. 3. The determination of glucose by means of the enzyme glucose oxidase.Enzymatic
hydrolysis of glycogen by α & β amylase.
4. Effects of temperature on the activity of alpha amylase. 5. Qualitative analysis of inorganic as well as organic constituents of Urine. 6. Titration curve for amino acids. 7. The separation of lipids by TLC. 8. Quantitative estimation of amino acids. 9. Estimation of cholesterol in Blood. 10. Estimation of Glucose in blood & urine. 11. Estimation of Urea in blood. 12. Estimation of ketone bodies in blood. Estimation of cholesterol in Blood.
PHARMACEUTICS - V
(PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY- I)
1. LIQUID DOSAGE FORMS:
Introduction, types of additives used in formulations,
vehicles, stablisers, preservatives, suspending agents, emulsifying agents, solubilizer,
colors, flavours and others, manufacturing packaging and evaluation of clear liquids,
suspensions and emulsions official in pharmacopoeia.
2.SEMISOLID DOSAGE FORMS:
Definitions, types, mechanism of drug penetration,
factors influencing penetration, semisolid bases and their selection. General formulation of
semisolids, clear gels manufacturing procedure, evaluation and packaging.
Ideal requirements, bases , manufacturing procedure ,packaging and
4.EXTRACTION AND GALANICAL PRODUCTS:
Principle and method of extraction,
preparation of infusions, tinctures, dry and soft liquid extracts
5. PHARMACEUTICAL AEROSOLOS:
Definition, propellants, and general formulation,
manufacturing and packing methods, pharmaceutical applications
6.Packaging of Pharmaceutical Products:
Packaging components, types, specifications
and methods of evaluation, stability aspects of packaging. Packaging equipments, factors
influencing choice of containers, legal and other official requirements for containers,
7. COSMETICOLOGY AND COSMETIC PREPARATIONS:
Fundamentals of cosmetic
science, structure and functions of skin and hair. Formulation, preparation and packaging of
cosmetics for skin, hair, dentifrice and manicure preparation like nail polish ,lipsticks, eye
(PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY I)
Course Code: PHA-551
1. Preparation, evaluation and packaging of liquid orals like solutions, suspensions and
emulsions, ointments, suppositories, aerosols, eye drops, eye ointments etc.
2. Preparation of pharmacopoeia extracts and galanical products utilizing various methods
3. Formulation of various types of cosmetics for skin, hair, dentifrices and manicure
(HOSPITAL PHARMACY& COMMUNITY PHARMACY)
1. Organization and structure
: Organization of a hospital and hospital pharmacy,
responsibilities of a hospital pharmacist, pharmacy and therapeutic committee, budget preparation and implementation.
2. Hospital formulary
: Contents, preparation and revision of hospital formulary. 3. Prescription :
Handling of prescription, source of errors in prescription, care
required in dispensing procedures including labeling of dispensed products.
General dispensing procedures including labeling of dispensed products. 4. Drug store management and inventory control:
a. Organization of drug store, types of materials stocked and storage conditions. b. Purchase and inventory control principles, purchase procedures, purchase
5. Drug distribution systems in hospitals:
c. out-patient dispensing, methods adopted. d. Dispensing of drugs to in-patients. Types of drug distribution systems.
e. Dispensing of drugs to ambulatory patients. f. Dispensing of controlled drugs.
6. Central sterile supply unit and their management
: Types of materials for
sterilization, packing of materials prior to sterilization, sterilization equipments, supply of
sterile materials. 7. Drug information services:
Sources of information on drugs, disease, treatment
schedules, procurement of information, computerized services (Medline), Retrieval of
information, medication error. 8. Nuclear pharmacy:
production of radio-pharmaceuticals, methods of isotopic
tagging, preparation of radio-isotopes ,radio isotope generators, permissible radiation
dose level, Role of pharmacist in handling radio isotopes.
9. Surgical products:
Definition, Primary wound dressing, absorbents, surgical gauzes
etc., bandages, adhesive tape, protective cellulosic hemostatics, official dressings,
absorbable nonabsorbable sutures, ligatures and catguts. Medical prosthetics and organ
10. Community Pharmacy :
Organisation and structure of retail and whole sale drug
store types of drug store design, legal; requirements for establishment, maintenance
and drug store-dispensing of proprietary products, maintenance of records of retail and
whole sale, patient counseling, role of pharmacist in community health care and
1. Study of the biological sources, cultivation, collection, commercial varieties,
chemical constituents, substitutes, adulterants, uses, diagnostic macroscopic and microscopic features and specific chemical tests of following groups of drugs containing glycosides: (i)
: Liquorice, Ginseng,Methi, dioscorea, and senega.
Cardioactive sterols :
Digitalis, Squill, Strophanthus and thevetia
Anthraquinone cathartics :
Aloe, Senna, Rhubarb and Cascara.
Psoralea, Ammi majus Ammi visnaga
Gentian, Saffron, Chirata,
Studies of traditional drugs, common vernacular names, botanical sources, morphology, chemical nature of chief constituents, pharmacology, categories and common uses and marketed formulations of following indigenous drugs:
Amla, satavari, Tylophora, Kalijiri, Bach, Punarnava, Chitrack, Aparnarg,
Gokhru, Shankhapusphi, Brahmi, Adusa, Lahsun, ,Guggal, Gymnema, Shilajit, Nagarmotha, Stevia and Neem.
The holistic concept of drug administration in traditional systems of medicine. Introduction to ayurvedic preparations like Aristas, Asvas, Gutikas, Tailas, Churnas, Lehyas and Bhasmas.
Role of medicinal and aromatic plants in national economy.
A brief account of plant based industries and institutions involved in work on medicinal and aromatic plants in India
World-wide trade in medicinal plants and derived products with special refernce to diosgenin (Dioscorea), taxol (Taxus sps) digitalis, Liquorice, Ginseng, Aloe, and plants containing laxatives.
Utilization and production of phytoconstituents such as calcium Sennoside, podophyllotoxin, diosgenin.
8. Herbs as health foods And Herbal cosmetics.
PHARMACOGNOSY - III
Identification of crude drugs listed in theory.
Microscopic study of some important glycoside containing crude drugs as outlined above. Study of powdered drugs.
Standardization of some traditional drug & their formulations
PHARMACOLOGY – I
Introduction to pharmacology, sources of drugs, dosage forms & routes of administration,
mechanism of action, concept of receptors, combined effect of drugs, factors modifying
drug action, tolerance & dependence, absorption, distribution. Unit-II :
Metabolism & excretion of drugs, principles of Clinical Pharmacokinetics. Adverse drug
reactions & treatment of poisoning. ADME drug interactions, Bioassay of drugs & Biological
standardization. Discovery & development of new drugs. Unit-III :
Pharmacology of ANS
a) Neurohumoral transmission (autonomic & somatic)
b) Parasympathomimetics, Parasympatholytics, Sympathomimetics, adrenergic receptor &
neuron blocking agents, ganglionic stimulants & blocking agents. Unit-IV :
Pharmacology of CNS
a. Neurohumoral transmission in the CNS b. General anesthetics c. Alcohols and disulfiram d. Sedatives, hypnotics, anti-anxiety agents, and centrally acting muscle relaxants e. Psychopharmacological agents (anti-psychotics), anti depressants, anti-manics and
g. Anti-parkinsonian drugs h. Analgesics, antipyretics, anti-inflammatory and anti-gout drugs i. Narcotic analgesics and antagonists j. CNS
Drugs acting on PNS
Neuromuscular blockers, Local anaesthetics.
Course Code: PHA- 558
Credit - 3
1. Introduction to Experimental Pharmacology:
Preparation of different solutions for experiments Drug dilutions, use of molar and w/v solutions in experimental pharmacology. Commonly used instruments in experimental pharmacology Commonly used animals and anesthetics used in animal studies. Some common and standard techniques Bleeding and intravenous injection, intragastric administration. Procedures for rendering animals unconscious- stunning of rodents, pithing of frogs, chemical euthanasia.
2. Experiments on Intact Preparations
Study of different routes of administration of drugs in mice /rats To study the effect of hepatic microsomal enzyme inhibitors and induction on the pentobarbitone sleeping time in mice.
3. Experiments on Central Nervous System
Recording of spontaneous motor activity, stereotypy, analgesia, anticonvulsant activity, anti-inflammatory activity and muscle relaxant activity of drugs using simple experiments
Course Code: PHA-560
Basic principles of Medicinal Chemistry
: Physio-chemical aspects (Optical, geometric
and bio-isoterism) of drug molecules and Biological action. Drug receptor interaction
including transduction mechanisms. Drug-receptor interaction including transduction
mechanism, concept of prodrug. Mode of action, uses, structure activity relationship of the following classes of drugs
(Synthetic procedures of individually mentioned drugs only) Drugs acting at Synaptic and neuro-effector junction sites:
Cholinergic, Anticholinergic & Anticholinesterases-Neostigmine, carbachol, Methacholine,
Adrenergic Drugs-Ephedrine, Isoproterenol, Amphetamine, Salbutamol, Terbutaline,
Adrenaline, methyldopa. Psychopharmcological Agents
Antispasmodic and Antiulcer drugs-Dicyclomine, Ranitidine, Omeprazole.
Neuromuscular Blocking Agents – Gallamine Mephenesin, Pancuronium.
Neuroleptics – Imipramine, Amitryptyline.flouxitine, busprinone, phenlzine.
Antidepressants – Meprobamate, Chlordiazepoxide, Diazepam, phenobarbitol,
pentobarbitol. Autocoids :
Diphenhydramine, Promethazine, Cyproheptadine, Cetrizine.
Ranitidine, Famotidine, ketodefen, promethaze. Drugs acting on the Central Nervous Systerm :
General Anaesthetics-Thiopental, Ketamine, Methohexital.
Local Anaesthetics-Lignocaine, Benzocaine.
Hypnotics and Sedatives-Phenobarbitone, Pentobarbitone alprazolam,
Opioid Analgesics-Pethidine, Methadone, Pentazocine. Analgesics-antipyretics, anti-inflammatory (Non steroidal) agents
Acid, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Drugs affecting uterine motility
Oxytocics (including oxytocin and ergot alkaloid.), Eicosanoids
Course Code: PHA-561
1. Synthesis of selected drugs from the course content involving two or more steps.
2. Establishing the pharmacopoeial standards of the drugs synthesized.
(BIOPHARMACEUTICS & PHARMACOKINETICS)
Introduction to biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics and their role in
formulation development and clinical setting.
a. Factors influencing absorption- physiochemical, physiological and
a. Significance of plasma drug concentration measurnments. b. Compartment kinetics – Definition & scope. One compartment and two
compartment models. Determination of pharmacokinetic parameters from plasma and urine data after drug administration by intravascular and oral route.
c. Pharmacokinetics of drug absorption- Zero order and first order absorption rate
constant using wagner- Nelson and Loo Reigelman method.
d. Volume of distribution and distribution coefficient. e. Clearance concept, mechanism of renal clearance, clearance ratio, determination
f. Extraction ratio, hepatic clearance, biliary excretion, Entero-hepatic circulation. g. Non-linear pharmacokinetics with reference to one compartment model after I.V.
drug administration, Michaelis Menton Equation, detection of non-linearity (saturation mechanism)
4. Clinical Pharmacokinetics
a. Dosage adjustment in patients with & without renal hepatic failure.
5. Bio-availability and bio-equivalence:
a. Measures of bioavailability, Cmax , Tmax and Area Under the Curve (AUC)
b. Design of single dose bio-equivalence study and relevant statistics.
(BIOPHARMACEUTICS & PHARMACOKINETICS)
1. In vitro evaluation of different dosage forms for drug release. 2. Interpretation of Data’s as mentioned in the above topics.
PHARMACEUTICAL JURISPRUDENCE & ETHICS
Course Code: PHA-564
a. Pharmaceutical legislations – A brief review.
b. Pharmaceutical Ethics c. Pharmacy Act 1948 d. Drugs & Cosmetics Act 1940 & rules 1945. e. Medicinal toilet Preparations (excise Duties) Act 1955. f. Narcotic Drugs & Psychotropic Substances Act 1985 & rules. g. Drugs Price Control order.
3.A brief study of the following with special reference to the main provisions.
a. poisons Act 1919. b. Drugs & Magic remedies (Objectionable advertisements) Act 1954 c. Medical Termination of pregnancy Act 1970 & rules 1975 d. States Shops & establishments Act & rules. e. Ipr &Patent Act 1970. f. Prevention of cruelty to animals act.
The Teaching of all the above Acts
should cover the latest amendments
Course Code: PHA-565
1. Systemic study of source, cultivation, collection, processing, commercial varieties, chemical constituents, substitutes, adulterants, uses, diagnostic, macroscopic and microscopic features and specific chemical tests of following alkaloid containing drugs:
a. Pyridine- Piperidine: Tobacco, Areca, and Lobelia b. Tropane: Belladona, Hyoscyamus, Datura, Coca, and Withania c. Quinoline and isoquinoline: Chincona, Ipecac, Opium d. Indole: Ergot, Rawolfia, Canthanathus, Nux-vomica e. Imidazole: Pilocarpus f. Steroidal: Veratrum, and Kurchi g. Alkaliodal amine: Ephedra and Colchicum h. Glycoalkaloid: Solanum xanthocarpum i. Purines: Coffee, Tea
2. Biological sources, preparation, identification, tests and uses of the following enzymes:
Diastase, Papain, streptokinase, Penicillinase, Haluronidase, Urokinase
3. Plant bitters and sweeteners 4. Introduction, classification and study of different chromatographic methods and their
applications in evaluation of herbal drugs.
World-wide trade in medicinal plants and derived products with special reference to
tropane alkaloid containing plants, Cinchona, Ipecac, Valerian, Rauwolfia and Papain .
5. Utilization and production of phytoconstituents such as Quinine, Solasodine &Tropane alkaloids. 6. Marine Pharmacognosy
1. Identification of crude drugs listed above. 2. Microscopic study of characters of eight- selected drugs given in theory in
3. Chemical evaluation of powdered drugs and enzymes 4. Chromatographic studies of some herbal constituents.
PHARMACOLOGY – II
Course Code: PHA- 567
Credit – 4
Pharmacology of Cardiovascular System
a) Digitalis and cardiac glycosides. b) Antihypertensive drugs. c) Antianginal and vasodilator Drugs, including calcium channel blockers and beta-
d) Antiarrhythmic drugs e) Antihyperlipidemic drugs. f) Drugs used in the therapy of shock.
Drugs Acting on Hemopoeitic System
a) Hematinics. b) Anticoagulants, Vitamin K and haemostatic agents. c) Fibrolytic and anti-platelet drugs. d) Blood and plasma volume expanders.
Drugs Acting on Respiratory System
a) Anti-asthmatic drugs including bronchodilators. b) Anti-tussives and expectorants. c) Respiratory stimulants.
a) Histamine, 5-HT and their antagonists. b) Prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes. c) Pentagastrin, Cholecystokinin, Angiotensin, Bradykinin and Substance P.
Drug acting on the Gastro Intestinal tract
a) Antacids, antisecretory and anti-ulcer drugs. b) Laxatives and antidiarrhoeal drugs. c) Emetics and anti-emetics.
Drugs acting on urinary system
a) Fluid and electrolyte balance. b) Diuretics.
PHARMACOLOGY – II (PRACTICAL)
a) To record the dose response curve (DRC) of Acetylcholine using ileum of rat / rectus
b) To study the effects of Physostigmine and d-tubocurarine on the CRC of
acetylcholine using rat ileum / rectus abdominis muscle preparation of frog.
c) To record the CRC of 5-HT on rat fundus preparation. d) To study the parallel shift of DRC in presence of competitive antagonist on DRC of
e) To study the CRC of histamine on guinea pig on ileum preparation & study the effect
f) Effects of autonomic drugs on rabbit eye.
PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY – VII
Course Code: PHA-570
Synthetic procedures of selected drugs, mode of action, uses, structure activity relationship
including Physio-chemical properties of the following classes of drugs.
– Antianginal & vasodilators, antiarrhythmics, antihypertensives,
antihyperlipidemics & cardiotonics – Nifedipine, Procainamide, Propranolol, Methyldopa,
Sulphamethoxazole, Sulphadiazine, Sulphacetamide, Nalidixic acid. 
– Acetazolamide, Chlorthiazide; Frusemide, Spironolactone triamtrine.
Steroids and related drugs :
Introduction, Classification, Nomenclature &
(A) Androgens and Anabolic steroids – Testosterone, Stanazolol.
(B) Estrogens and Progestational agents – Progesterone, Estradiol.
(C) Adrenocorticoids – Prednisolone, Dexamethasone, Betamethasone.
Penicillins, Semi-synthetic, penicillins, streptomycin, tetracyclines,
Cholroquine, Primaquine, Pyrimethamine
Antiseptic and disinfectant
-Phenytoin, Carbamazepine, Ethosuximide, Valproic Acid.
PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY – VII
Course Code: PHA-571
1. Synthesis of selected drugs from the course content involving two or more steps.
2. Establishing the Pharmacopoeial standards of the drugs synthesized.
3. Spectral analysis of the drugs synthesized.
(PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY II)
Course Code: PHA-572
a) Formulation of different types of tablets, granulation technology on large-scale by
various techniques, physics of tablets making, different types of tablet compression machinery and equipments employed, evaluation of tablets.
b) Coating of Tablets: Types of coating, film forming materials, formulation of coating
solution, equipments for coating, coating process, evaluation of coated tablets.
Stability kinetics and quality assurance. 2.Capsules:
Advantages and disadvantages of capsule dosage form, material for
production of hard gelatin capsules, size of capsules, method of capsule filling, soft gelatin,
capsule shell and capsule content, importance of base absorption and minimum/gm factors
in soft capsules, quality control, stability testing and storage of capsule dosage forms. 3.sterile products.
a) Preformulation factors, routes of administration, water for injection, pyrogenicity,
nonaqueous vehicles, isotonicity and methods of its adjustment.
b) Formulation details, containers and closures and selection. c) Prefilling treatment, washing of containers and closures, preparation of solution and
suspensions, filling and closing of ampoules, vials, infusion fluids, lyophillization and preparation of sterile powders, equipment for large-scale manufacture and evaluation of parenteral products.
d) Aseptic Techniques-source of contamination and methods of prevention, Design of
aseptic area, laminar low bench services and maintenance.
Sterility testing of pharmaceuticals. ii.Opthalmic preparations:
Requirements,formulationsand method of
preparation,containers and evaluation. 4.Microencapsulation:
Types of microcapsules, importance of microencapsulation in
pharmacy, micro encapsulation by phase separation, coacervation, multi orifice, spray
drying, spray congealing, polymerization complex emulsion, air suspension technique,
coating pan and other techniques, evaluation of microcapsules.
(PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY II)
Course Code: PHA-573 Credits: 2
1.Experiments to illustrate preparation, stabilization, physical and biological evaluation of pharmaceutical products like powders, capsules, tablets, parenterals, microcapsules, surgical dressing etc.
2. Evaluation of materials used in pharmaceutical packaging.
Course Code: PHA-574
1. Immunology and Immunological preparations:
Principles, antigens and haptens,
immune system, cellular humoral immunity, immunological tolerance, antigen-antibody reactions and their application. Hypersensitivity, Active & Passive immunization; Vaccines-their preparation, standardization and storage.
2. Genetic Recombination:
Transformation, conjugation, transduction, protoplast
fusion and gene cloning and their applications. Development of hybridoma for monoclonal antibodies. Study of drugs produced by biotechnology such as activase, humulin, and humatrope, HB etc.
: Historical development of antibiotics. Antimicrobial spectrum and
methods for their standardization. Screening of soil for organisms producing antibiotics, fermenter, its design, and control of different parameters. Isolation of mutants, factors influencing rate of mutation. Design of fermentation process. Isolation of fermentation products with special reference to penicillins, streptomycins, tetracyclines and vitamin B12.
4. Microbial transformation:
Introduction, types of reactions mediated by
microorganisms, design of biotransformation process and its improvements with special reference to steroids.
5. Enzyme Immobilization:
Techniques of immobilization, factors affecting enzyme
kinetics. Study of enzymes such as hyaluronidase, pencillinase, streptokinase and streptodornase, amylases and proteases etc. Immobilization of bacteria and plant cells
6.BLOOD PRODUCTS AND PLASMA SUBSTITUTES:
Collection, processing and
storage of whole human blood, concentrated human RBCs ,dried human plasma,
human fibrinogen, human thrombin, human normal immunoglobulin , human fibrin, foam
plasma substitutes- ideal requirements, PVP,Dextran etc. for control of blood pressure
as per I.P
PHARMACETICAL INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT
Course Code:PHA-575 Credits:3
1.Concept of Management
: Management and Administration (Planning, Organizing,
Staffing, Directing and Controlling), Entrepreneurship development, Operative
Management . Principles of Management (Co-ordination, Communication, Motivation,
Decision-making, leadership, Innovation, Creativity, Delegation of Authority/
Responsibility, Record Keeping). Identification of key points to give maximum thrust for
development and perfection.
Principles of Accountancy, Ledger posting and book entries, preparation of trial
balance, columns of a cash book, bank reconciliation statement, rectification of errors,
profits and loss account, balance sheet, purchase, keeping and pricing of stocks,
treatment of cheques, bills of exchange. 3. Economics
: Principles of economics with special reference to the laws of demand
and supply, demand schedule, demand curves, labor welfare, general principles of
insurance and inland and foreign trade, procedure of exporting and importing goods. 4. Pharmaceutical Marketing:
Functions, buying, selling, transportation, storage,
finance, feedback, information, channels of distribution, wholesale, retail, departmental
store, multiple shop and mail order business, Function of Markets. 5. Salesmanship:
Principles of sales promotion, advertising, ethics of sales,
merchandising literature, detailing. Recruitment, training, evaluation, compensation to
the pharmacist and direct marketing. 6. Market research:
(a) Measuring and Forecasting Market Demands: Major concept in demand
measurement, estimating current demand, estimating industry sales, Market share and future demand.
(b) Market segmentation and Market Targeting.
7. Production management:
A brief exposure of the different aspects of production management-
Performance Evaluation Technique, Process-Flow, Process Know-how, Maintenance Management. Introduction of Material management with inventory and evaluation of material management.
(CHEMISTRY OF NATURAL PRODUCTS)
Introduction to - a. Chemical and spectral approaches to simple molecules of natural origin. b. Stereoisomerism taking examples of natural products.
General techniques of biosynthetic studies and basic metabolic pathways. Brief introduction to biogenesis of secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical importance.
and important pharmacological activity of following
phytoconstituents a. Medicinally important monoterpenes, sesquiterpene, diterpenes, and
b. Carotenoids: α-carotenoids, β-crotenes, vitamin A, Xanthophylls of medicinal
c. Glycosides: digitoxin, sennosides, diosgenin d. Alkaloids: atropine and related compounds, quinine, reserpine, morphine,
e. Lignans, Quassanoids & flavonoids.
Extraction & Isolation procedures of- Terpene, Carotene, Digitoxin, Sennoside, Atropine, Quinine, Reserpine, Morphine, Flavanoids.
Chemistry and therapeutic activity of Penicillin, Streptomycin and Tetracyclines.
Historical development of plant tissue culture, types of cultures, nutritional requirements, growth and their maintenance. Applications of plant tissue in pharmacognosy.
(CHEMISTRY OF NATURAL PRODUCTS)
Subject Code: PHA-577
1) Laboratory experiments on isolation, separation, purification of various groups of
chemical constituents of pharmaceutical significance.
2) Exercises on paper and thin layer chromatographic evaluations of herbal drug
3) Extraction of volatile oils and their chromatographic profiles.
Introductory Technique experiments in plant tissue culture.
Pharmacology of endocrine system
a) Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones. b) Thyroid hormones and antithyroid drugs, parathormone, calcitonin and vitamin D. c) Insulin, oral hypoglycaemic agents & glucagons. d) ACTH and corticosteroids. e) Androgens and anabolic steroids. f) Estrogens, progesterone and oral contraceptives. g) Drugs acting on the uterus.
a) General principles of chemotherapy. b) Sulfonamides and co-trimoxazole. c) Antibiotics-penicillin, cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, erythromycin quinolones and
a) Chemotherapy of tuberculosis leprosy, fungal diseases, viral diseases, urinary tract
infection and sexually transmitted diseases.
b) Chemotherapy of malignancy and immunosuppressive agents.
Principles of Toxicology
a) Definition of poison, general principles of treatment of poisoning with particular
reference to barbiturates, opioids, organophosphorous and atropine poisoning.
b) Heavy metals and heavy metal antagonists.
Experiments on Isolated Preparations:
a) To calculate the pA2 value of Atropine & chlorpheniramine using acetycholine as an
b) Bioassay of Ach, histamine & oxytocin on suitable isolated preparations using
matching bioassay, bracketing bioassay, three point assay & four point bioassay.
GLP, ISO 9000,TQM, Quality Review and Quality Documentation.
Regulatory control, regulatory drug analysis, interpretation of analytical data.
Validation, quality audit: quality of equipment, validation of equipment, and validation of
Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrophotometry :
Electronic, excitation, quantitative laws,
deviation from Beer’s law, graphical presentation of data. Chromophores photometric error,
instrumentation, single and double beam spectrohotometer.
Colorimetric methods : Chemistry of colorimetry, instrumentation, application (direct
indirect methods). Nephelometry & turbidimetry and densiometry.
Infra Red Spectrophotometry :
Theory, characteristics absorbance, bands of organic
interpretation of infrared absorption spectra, preparation of sample, sample cells, IR
qualitative and quantitative applications in pharmaceutical analysis.
Flourimetric Analysis :
Theory, quantitative description, experimental factors affecting
intensity, factors affecting IC and F directly, relationship of fluorescence to molecular
instrumentation, correction of spectra, pharmaceutical applications.
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
An introduction to the theory of 1H-NMR, chemical shift & spin-spin coupling, spectra of
(CH3 CH2 -OH, CI-CH2 OH, CH3 – CHO, CH3 (CH2)4 CH3, C6 H6, CH3 C6H5 ).
Introduction to mass spectra, molecular ion peak, fragmentation peaks, mass spectra of
Origin of spectra, atomization and ionization, instrumentation, background emission,
qualitative & quantitative applications in pharmaceutical analysis.
Theory, instrumentation and applications of:
1. Quantitative estimation of at least ten formulations containing single drug or more
than one drug, using instrumental techniques.
2. IR of samples with different functional groups (-COOH,-COOR, -CONHR;-NH2-
workshop to interpret the structure of simple organic compounds using UV,IR. NMR
(MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY III)
Course code: PHA-582
Drug metabolism and Concepts of Prodrugs.
Principles of Drug Design: Traditional analogs. Introduction to QSAR and mechanism
Computer –aided drug design and molecular modeling. Biochemical approaches in drug
designing wherever applicable should be discussed
Mode of action, uses, structure activity relationship of the following classes of drugs
(Synthetic procedures of individually mentioned drugs only)
Metronidazole, Tinidazole, Diloxanide
PAS, Ethambutol, Isoniazid, Dapsone
Antineoplastic agents: 5-FU, methotrexate, cisplatin.
Thyroid and Antithyroids
– Carbimazole, Levothyroxine, Propylthiouracil, Methimazole.
Insulin & Oral Hypoglycaemics
– Chlorpropamide, Metformin, Tolbutamide,
HIV agents – Zidovudine, Zalcitabine, Saquinavir.
Antivirals – Amantadine, Acyclovir, Lamivudine.
Antiseptics & Disinfectants
– Benzalkonium chloride
(MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY III)
1. Workshop related to Computer –aided drug design, QSAR analysis.
3. Establishing the pharmacopoeal standards and spectral studies.
(Dosage Form Design)
(a) Study of physical properties of drug like physical form, particle size shape,
density, wetting, dielectric constant. Solubility dissolution and organoleptic property and their effect on formulation, stability and bioavailability.
(b) Study of chemical properties of drugs like hydrolysis, oxidation, reduction,
racemization, polymerization, etc., and their influence on formulation and stability of products.
(c) Study of prodrugs in solving problems related to stability, bioavailability and
2. Process validation methods for pharmaceutical operations involved in the production of Solid, Liquid and Semi- solid dosage form. 3. Stabilization and stability testing protocol for various pharmaceutical products. 4. Performance evaluation methods:
a) In-vitro dissolution studies for solid dosage forms methods, interpretation of
b) Bioavailability studies and bioavailability testing protocol and procedures. c) In-vivo methods of evaluation and statistical treatment.
5. Introduction to Novel Drug Delivery System with special reference to Colloidal System (Liposomes, proneosomes, neosomes, etc), Transdermal delivery system, Occular delivery system and Nasal delivery system.
CLINICAL PHARMACY AND DRUG INTERACTIONS
Introduction to Clinical Pharmacy
Basic concepts of Pharmacotherapy
a) Clinical Pharmacokinetics and individualization of Drug Therapy. b)
Drug Delivery Systems and their Biopharmaceutics and Therapeutical considerations.
c) Drug Use during Infancy and in the elderly (Pediatrics and Geriatrics). d) Drug use during Pregnancy e) Drug induced diseases. f) The Basics of Drug Interactions. g) Interpretation of Clinical Laboratory Tests.
Important disorders of Organ systems and their Management
a) Cardiovascular Disorders-Hypertension, Congestive heart Failure, Angina, Acute
Myocardial Infarction, Cardiac arrhythmias.
b) CNS Disorders: Epilepsy, Parkinsonism, Schizoprenia, Depression c) Respiratory Disease-Asthma. d) Gastrointestinal Disorders-Peptic ulcer, Ulcerative colitis, Hepatitis, Cirrhosis. e) Endocrine Disorders-Diabetes mellitus and thyroid Disorders. f) Infectious diseases- Tuberculosis, Urinary tract infection, Enteric Infections, Upper
g) Hemopoietic Disorders- Anemia’s h) Joint and connective Disorders- Rheumatic Diseases, Gout and Hyperuricemia. i) Neoplastic
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Concept of Essential drugs and Rational Drug use.
H VA Ø N S K E R RYG G PA S I E N T E R R y g g f o r e n i n g e n i N o r g e , N a s j o n a l t R y g g n e t t v e r k Dette prosjektet er finansiert med Extra-midler fra Helse og Rehabilitering INNHOLDSFORTEGNELSE Etter at jeg fikk diagnosen har det undret meg at jeg er blitt så voldsomt opptatt av å lære mest mulig om ryggproblemer. Er det flere enn meg som har det på samme
Spediz. abb. post. 45% - art. 2, comma 20/bLegge 23-12-1996, n. 662 - Filiale di RomaDIREZIONE E REDAZIONE PRESSO IL MINISTERO DELLA GIUSTIZIA - UFFICIO PUBBLICAZIONE LEGGI E DECRETI - VIA ARENULA 70 - 00186 ROMAAMMINISTRAZIONE PRESSO L’ISTITUTO POLIGRAFICO E ZECCA DELLO STATO - LIBRERIA DELLO STATO - PIAZZA G. VERDI 10 - 00198 ROMA - CENTRALINO 06 85081La Gazzetta Ufficiale, Parte Prima, o