Pharmacie française en ligne: Acheter des antibiotiques sans ordonnance en ligne prix bas et Livraison rapide.

Doi:10.1016/j.fm.2004.03.007

MICROBIOLOGY
Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Listeria species in meat Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Art, Gazi University, 06500 Teknikokullar, Ankara, Turkey Received 2 July 2003; accepted 24 March 2004 In this study, a total of 146 raw (minced, chicken, beef) and cooked (red meat, chicken) meat samples were analysed for the presence of Listeria spp. The isolates were characterized by morphological, cultural, biochemical tests according to Bergey’s manualand confirmed by API-Listeria kit. Out of a total of 146 meat samples, 79 (54.10%) were found to be contaminated with Listeriaspp., with the highest incidence (86.4%) occurring in raw minced meat. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from 9 (6.16%) of the 79samples examined. Other species isolated included L. innocua 68 (46.57%), L. welshimeri one (0.68%) and L. murrayi one (0.68%).
Of the Listeria species, L. innocua (46.57%) was the most predominantly isolated species in a variety of meat samples. Overall, theListeria strains isolated from meat and meat products were mostly resistant to cephalothin and nalidixic acid but exhibited a highdegree of susceptibility to kanamycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. The importance of finding antibiotic resistant Listeria spp.
in food is discussed.
r 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Listeria spp.; Meat samples; Antibiotic resistance Listeria species are ubiquitous bacteria widely dis- tributed in the natural environment. The ubiquitous these foods have not been associated with documented character of the bacteria inevitably results in contam- outbreaks of human listeriosis. The detection of Listeria ination of numerous food products. Epidemiological spp. in meat is of particular concern in terms of studies performed in recently years have demonstrated consumer safety, as these organisms are capable of that Listeria monocytogenes is an important pathogen growing on both raw and cooked meat at refrigeration Although dairy products have been major source during further transformation processes of raw meat into meat products L. monocytogenes can be introduced, other raw or recontaminated products of animal where the amount depends on the extent of cross- or vegetable origin may serve as vehicles of transmission contamination, personal and general hygienic measures of this pathogen. To date, there have been almost no reports of outbreaks of foodborne listeriosis associated addition, assessing the prevalence of L. monocytogenes with meat consumption. However, Listeria spp. has in cooked meat is particularly important, since these been isolated from poultry, red meat and meat products products are often consumed after a brief heat in many countries around the world such as Yugoslavia treatment, which may not be sufficient to kill all viablecells ( Despite efficient antibiotic therapy, listeriosis repre- *Corresponding author. Tel.: +90-312-212-60-30; fax: +90-312- sents a public health problem since it is fatal in up to E-mail address: nyucel@gazi.edu.tr (N. Y .ucel).
30% of the cases. This threatening nature of listeriosis 0740-0020/$ - see front matter r 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.fm.2004.03.007 N. Y .ucel et al. / Food Microbiology 22 (2005) 241–245 Table 1Incidence of Listeria species from various meat products a Parenthesis indicate percentage of positive samples.
also prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) after 48 h of incubation at 37C. The suspect colonies to suggest that various food products must be frequently were subcultured to tryptone soy agar supplemented investigated for the presence of L. monocytogenes on a with 0.6% yeast extract (TSA-YE, LabM) for purity and incubated at 37C. Every colony was confirmed by Although occurrence of Listeria species in meat and biochemical reactions and morphology, including Gram meat products has been investigated in several countries, staining, catalase production, oxidase, motility and little has been reported about the incidence of the Voges Praskauer reaction. For further confirmation of organisms in meat products in Turkey. The purpose of Listeria spp., other biochemical reactions, b-haemolytic this study is to investigate the incidence of Listeria activity, and the CAMP tests were performed according species in raw and cooked meat products and to check to Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology antibiotic resistance patterns of the isolated strains.
The isolates of L. monocytogenes andListeria spp. were identified using the API-Listeria(BioMerieux, Florence), along with the reference strains L. monocytogenes ATCC 19114 and L. innocua ATCC33090.
The samples were collected from approximately 200 g of meat obtained from the supermarkets, local butcher- All the isolates of Listeria were tested by the standart shops and restaurants located in Ankara from May 2001 to April 2002. The types and numbers samples collected from each of the sources are shown in All following antibiotics were spotted with a 3 cm interval samples were stored at 4C after sampling, until the ampicillin (10 mg), chloramphenicol (30 mg), cephalothin (30 mg), ciprofloxacin (5 mg), kanamycin (30 mg), tri-methoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) (1.25/23.75 mg), na- 2.2. Isolation and identification of Listeria species lidixic acid (30 mg), tetracycline (30 mg), and tobramycin(10 mg). Isolates were cultured in trypticase-soy broth Meat samples were analysed for the presence of (TSB) supplemented with 0.6% yeast extract, and Listeria spp. using the enrichment and isolation transferred to Mueller–Hinton agar (Oxoid CM 337).
procedure, recommended by the USDA-FSIS Method The plates were incubated at 37C for 48 h.
Twenty-five grams of a samplewas aseptically taken, blended for 2 min in 225 ml ofUVM (University of Vermont) Listeria enrichment broth (UVM 1) (composition in g/l: tryptose 10; meatextract 5; yeast extract 5; NaCl 20; K2HPO4 1.35; esculin presented the types, numbers and sources of 1; nalidixic acid 0.02; acriflavine hydrochloride 0.012; the meat samples analysed in this study. Of a total of pH: 7.2), and incubated at 37C for 24 h. A portion of 146 samples examined, 79 (54.1%) were positive for 1 ml of primary enrichments were transferred to 9 ml of Listeria spp. The findings of our study are in agreement UVM 2 (UVM 1 with 0.025 g/l of acriflavine hydro- chloride in 10 ml of sterile distilled water, pH: 7.2) and incubated at 37C for 24 h. Secondary enrichments spp. in 56.6% of meat samples. Similarly, in a study in (0.1 ml) were streaked to modified Oxford agar (Oxoid) Switzerland, isolated the Listeria spp.
and plates were examined for typical Listeria colonies from 55.3% of raw chicken samples. In this study all the N. Y .ucel et al. / Food Microbiology 22 (2005) 241–245 Table 2Percentage and number of isolates of 79 Listeria resistant to 9 antimicrobial agents Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (1.25/23.75) various meat products, raw minced meat had the highest incidence of Listeria spp., with 37 (86.4%) of 42 samples According to these results, the existence of Listeria spp. in being positive. Incidence of Listeria spp. in raw meats meats would pose a threat only if the meat were could be attributed either to fecal contamination during insufficiently cooked or if there is cross-contamination. It was significantly important for public health to detect According to previous some reports, high incidences of Listeria spp., and particularly L. monocytogenes, in meat L. monocytogenes were found in raw meat. products sold in Ankara, since consumers are frequently isolated L. monocytogenes in 69% of minced meat exposed to these products. However, in Turkey raw meat is normally thoroughly cooked or grilled before consump- detected the bacteria in 24% of beef in Australia. tion, and L. monocytogenes is likely to be eliminated.
isolated it in 34% of raw meat in Japan.
It is interesting to note that L. innocua was isolated Some investigators have also found the incidence of L.
predominantly among Listeria species in our study monocytogenes to be moderate: 12.5% in New Zealand (). It was detected in 83.3% of the raw minced meat, 57.6% of the raw chicken meat, 63.1% of the raw beef, 9.6% of the cooked red meat and 10.7% of the cooked chicken samples. This finding is in agreement In the present study, we analysed raw meat samples with other studies where L. innocua was the most and the incidence of L. monocytogenes was found to be common species in raw and cooked meats, while other 4.7% in minced meat, 11.5% in chicken and 5.2% in beef. These results are in close agreement with the Until recently, the Listeria genus was thought to be , where the organism was recovered from 4.3% uniformly susceptible to antibiotics active against and 12.5% of meat samples, respectively. Also, in our Gram-positive bacteria including ampicillin or penicillin study, L. monocytogenes was isolated in cooked meat (combined with aminoglycosides), trimethoprim (alone products (red meat 3.5%, chicken meat 6.4%). The or combined with sulfamethoxazole), tetracyclines, incidence of L. monocytogenes in cooked meat was erythromycin, and gentamicin. Hence, these antibiotics similar to that reported by various authors: 7.9% in were used treatment of human listeriosis and veterinary first antibiotic-resistant L. monocytogenes was described 5 to 21 samples of cook-chill food, and all isolations resistant strains have been detected in food and sporadic were from poultry dishes. The thermal resistance of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes has been debated, but it is generally accepted that proper heating kills species is due to the acquisition of three type mobile viable Listeria cells. However, the occurrence of Listeria genetic elements: self-transferable and mobilizable plas- spp. in cooked meats may be as considered a conse- quence of inadequate heat treatment or post-heating In our study, L. monocytogenes, L. innocua and L.
recontamination. On the other hand, L. monocytogenes welshimeri were highly sensitive to chloramphenicol (88– has been strongly implicated particularly in the con- 100%) and to tetracycline (100%, except L. seeligeri), tamination of foods stored at low temperatures. Storage but resistant to ampicillin (66–100%). Similarly, of such products under such low temperature conditions indicated that L. monocytogenes, L. innocua may allow the growth of significant numbers of these isolated from meat products were high sensitivity to organisms leading to foodborne illnesses among con- N. Y .ucel et al. / Food Microbiology 22 (2005) 241–245 that L. monocytogenes were isolated; no strain was Beak, S.Y., Lim, Y.S., Lee, D.H., Min, K.H., Kim, C.M., 2000.
Incidence and characterization of Listeria monocytogenes from survey of Italian dairy and meat products, reported that domestic and imported foods in Korea. J. Food Prot. 63,186–189.
none of the 98 L. monocytogenes isolates and 85 L.
Beumer, R.R., te Giffel, M.C., de Boer, E., Rombous, F.M., 1996.
innocua isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol; but Growth of Listeria onocytogenes on sliced cooked meat products.
only four strains of L. monocytogenes and 15 of L.
innocua were resistant to one or more antibiotics Brackett, R.E., 1988. Presence and persistence of Listeria monocyto- genes in food and waters. Food Technol. 42, 162–164.
Breer, C., 1988. Occurrence of Listeria spp. in different foods. WHO Working Groupon Foodborne Listeriosis, Geneva, Switzerland, Spain, reported high susceptibilities among foodborne Listeria species to ampicillin, cephalothin, gentamicin Buncic, S., 1991. The incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in and erythromycin. In our study, among aminoglycosides slaughtered animals, in meat, and in meat products in Yugoslavia.
Int. J. Food Microbiol. 12, 173–180.
ceptible strains of L. monocytogenes and L. innocua were Charpentier, E., Gerbaud, G., Jacquet, C., Rocourt, J., Courvalin, P., 1995. Incidence of antibiotic resistance in Listeria species. J. Infect.
89% and 68%, respectively. On the other hand, all L.
monocytogenes isolates were susceptible to tobramycin Choi, Y., Cho, S., Park, B., Chung, D., Oh, D., 2001. Incidence and while all L. innocua isolates were resistant to tobramycin.
characterization of Listeria spp. from foods available in Korea. J.
With respect to the susceptible results, our results were De Simon, M., Ferrer, M.D., Tarrago, C., 1992. Incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh foods in Barcelone (Spain). Int. J. Food reported high natural susceptibility among Listeria species to tetracycline, aminoglycosides and chloramphe- Dhanashree, D., Otta, S.K., Karunasagar, I., Goebel, W., Karunasa- nicol; but the significant rate of resistant cephalosporins gar, 2003. Incidence of Listeria spp. in clinical and food samples in was recorded. According to our results, among the Mangalore, India. Food Microbiol. 20, 447–453.
Listeria isolates, only L. monocytogenes is resistant to Facinelli, B., Giovanetti, E., Varaldo, P.E., Casolari, P., Fabio, U., SXT (66%), other Listeria spp. is susceptible SXT 1991. Antibiotic resistance in foodborne Listeria. Lancet 338, 1272.
Farber, J.M., Peterkin, P.I., 1991. Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne (100%). The recently detected foodborne strain of L.
pathogen. Microbiol. Rev. 55, 476–511.
monocytogenes resistant to SXT combination is used in Fenlon, D.R., Wilson, J., Donachie, W., 1996. The incidence and level the treatment of listeriosis, especially in patients allergic of Listeria monocytogenes contamination of food sources at primary production and initial processing. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 81, and dissemination of this resistance trait in clinical strains of L. monocytogenes could have important therapeutic Franco, C.M., Quinto Fernandez, E.J., Fente Sampayo, C., Rodriquez Otero, J.L., DominguezRodriguez, L., Cepeda Seaz, A., 1994.
consequences. In our study, all the strains were resistant to cephalothin as expected, Listeria spp. has been nine antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38, reported to be naturally and intrinsically resistant to cephalosporins. L. monocytogenes exhibits intrinsic re- Glass, K.A., Doyle, M.P., 1989. Fate and thermal inactivation of sistance to nalidixic acid selective media for isolation, Listeria monocytogenes in processed meat products during refri-gerated storage. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55, 1565–1569.
which are therefore incorporated into selective media.
Hudson, J.A., Mott, S.J., Delacy, K.M., Edridge, A.L., 1992.
Thus, Listeria spp. was resistant to cephalothin and Incidence and coincidence of Listeria spp. motile aeromonads nalidixic acid (100%), except L. welshimeri.
and Yersinia enterocolitica on ready-to-eat fleshfoods. Int. J. Food In conclusion; in our study, it was evident that Listeria spp. were resistant to one or more antimicrobial Ibrahim, A., Mac Rae, I.C., 1991. Incidence of Aeromonas and Listeria agents (ampicillin, cephalothin, nalidixic acid). We spp. in red meat and milk samples in Brisbane, Australia. Int. J.
Food Microbiol. 12, 263–270.
suggest that the incorrect use of these antimicrobial Karaioannoglou, P.G., Xenos, G.C., 1980. Survival of Listeria agents for therapeutical purposes in veterinary science monocytogenes in meat balls. Hell. Vet. Med. 23, 111–117.
may lead to the development of antibiotic resistance.
Kerr, K.G., Dealler, S.F., Lacey, R.W., 1988. Listeria in cook-chill Lovett, J., Francis, D.W., Hunt, J.M., 1987. Listeria monocytogenes in raw milk: detection, incidence and pathogenicity. J. Food Prot. 5,188–192.
This work was financially supported by the Gazi McClain, D., Lee, W.H., 1988. Development of USDA/FSIS method University Research Fund (Project No. 05. 2002-64).
for of L. monocytogenes from raw meat and poultry. J. Assoc. Off.
Anal. Chem. 71, 660–664.
National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards 1988. Perfor- mance Standards for Antimicrobial Disc Susceptibility Test, 4thEdition. Publication M2-T4. National Committee for Clinical Barbuti, S., Maggi, A., Casoli, C., 1992. Antibiotic resistance in strains Laboratory Standards, Villanova, PA.
of Listeria spp. from meat products. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 15 (2), Noack, D.J., Joeckel, J., 1993. Listeria monocytogenes, occurrence and significance in meat and meat products and experience with N. Y .ucel et al. / Food Microbiology 22 (2005) 241–245 recommendations for its detection and assessment. Fleisch- Slade, P.J., Collins-Thompson, D.L., Fletcher, F., 1988. Incidence of Listeria species in Ontorio raw milk. Int. Food Sci. Technol. J.
Poyart-Salmeron, C., Carlier, C., Trieu-Cuot, P., Courtieu, A.L., Courvalin, P., 1990. Transferable plasmid-mediated antibiotic Teuber, M., 1999. Spread of antibiotic resistance with food-borne resistance in Listeria monocytogenes. Lancet 335, 1422–1426.
pathogens. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 56, 755–763.
Roberts, M.C., Facinelli, B., Giovanetti, E., Varaldo, P.E., 1996.
Troxler, R., von Graevenitz, A., Funke, G., Wiedemann, A., Stock, I., Transferable erythromycin resistance in Listeria spp. Isolated from 2000. Natural antibiotic susceptibility of Listeria species: L. grayi, food. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62, 269–270.
L. innocua, L. ivanovii, L. monocytogenes, L. seeligeri and L.
Rota, C., Yang .uela, J., Blanco, D., Carraminana, J., Arino, J., welshimeri strains. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 6 (10), 525.
Herrera, A., 1996. High prevalence of multiple resistance to Uyttendaele, M., Troy, De, P., Debevere, J., 1999. Incidence of antibiotics in 144 Listeria isolates from Spanish Dairy and Meat Listeria monocytogenes in different types of meat products on the Products. J. Food Prot. 59, 938–943.
Ryu, C.H., Igimi, S., Inoue, S., Kumagai, S., 1992. The incidence of Belgian retail market. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 53, 75–80.
Listeria species in retail foods in Japan. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 16, Walker, S.F., Archer, P., Banks, J.G., 1990. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes at refrigeration temperatures. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 63, Seeliger, H.P.R., Jones, D., 1987. Listeria. In: Holt, J.G. (Ed.), Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 9th Edition. Williams World Health Organization Working Group, 1990. Foodborne listeriosis. Bull. WHO 66, 421–428.

Source: http://smas.chemeng.ntua.gr/miram/files/publ_168_10_2_2005.pdf

Erstes abschmirgeln

d Fasnachtsvärse 07 vo de Zibelegringe bim Nestlé, quasi d Schoggi neu erfunde. Doch oje, die hoch-gelobti Nouvel-Emballage isch nach e me Jahr scho wieder am Arsch. Scho gly bruuche mir für Ghüder u Dräck, nume no die neue tüüre blaue Seck. Das kennt me bi Promi-Apéros scho lang, da stöh nachhär o geng so blaui Seck umenang… D Polizei hett viel z viel Ueberstun

Universidade metodista de são paulo

Revista Theos – Revista de Reflexão Teológica da Faculdade Teológica Batista de Campinas . Campinas: 6ª Edição, V.5 - Nº2 – Dezembro de 2009. ISSN: 1980-0215. A Teoria da Memória Coletiva de Maurice Halbwachs em Diálogo com Dostoievski : Uma Análise Sociológica Religiosa a partir da Literatura. Claudinei Fernandes Paulino da Silv Este artigo propõe dialogar Maurice

Copyright © 2010-2018 Pharmacy Drugs Pdf