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Farmaca in verband met het autonoom zenuwstelsel

Geneesmiddelen i.v.m. cholinerge transmissie
Muscarine agonisten = parasympathicomimetica (acetylcholine), carbachol, methacholine, bethanechol (Muscarine®), pilocarpine Muscarine antagonisten = parasympathicolytica, anticholinergica atropine (hyoscyamine), (scopolamine (hyoscine)), glycopyrrolaat, butylscopolamine (Buscopan Compositum®, icm. dipyrone (pyrazolonderivaat), DGK) neostigmine, pyridostigmine, fysostigmine/eserine gallamine, pancuronium, tubocurarine (curare), atracurium succinylcholine, decamethonium (geen DGK preparaten) Geneesmiddelen i.v.m. noradrenerge transmissie Neurotransmitters adrenaline (epinefrine), noradrenaline (norepinefrine), dopamine "-methyldopa, reserpine, bretylium, guanethidine, tyramine, amfetamine, efedrine, (isoprenaline) humaan: fenoterol (Berotec®), salbutamol (Ventolin®, ook KHD), terbutaline (Bricanyl®), orciprenaline (Alupent®) DGK: clenbuterol (Ventipulmin®, bronchiaal; Planipart®, uterus), (isoxsuprine (Duvadilan®, uit de handel)) etylefrine (Effortil®), fenylefrine, efedrine ("1 selectieve antagonisten) – niet in DGK humaan: atenolol (Tenormin®), propanolol (Inderal®), oxprenolol (Trasicor®),
Farmaca met een invloed op het centrale zenuwstelsel

Serotoninerg systeem
buspirone (agonist), fluoxetine (Prozac), paroxetine (Seroxat) benzodiazepines (minor tranquillizers, Diazepam, Valium), barbituraten (hypnotica) Psychotrope farmaca Psycholeptica Neuroleptica Major Butyrofenonen: haloperidol (Haldol), fluanisone, doperidol, azoperone (Stresnil) Fenothiazines: piperazine fenothiazine, alifatische fenothiazinen, chloorpromazine, promazine (Prazine), acetylpromazine (Placivet, ACP), trimeprazine Dopamine agonisten: bromocriptine (Parlodel®), cabergoline (Galastop®) Benzodiazepines: chloordiazepoxide (Librium), diazepam (Valium), midazolam (Dormicum), zolazepam (Zoletil), clonazepam (Rivotril) xylazine (Rompun), detomidine (Domosedan), romifidine (Sedivet), medetomidine (Domitor), dexmedetomidine (Dexdomitor) "1 en "2 antagonisten (zie autonoom zenuwstelsel) barbituraten: thiopental (Pentothal), pentobarbital (Nembutal), fenobarbital (Luminal) procaïne, lidocaïne (Xylocaïne), mepivacaïne (Scandicaïne), (ravocaïne), bupivacaïne, oxybuprocaïne, tetracaïne halothaan, isofluraan (Isoflo®), (methoxyfluraan, enfluraan, cyclopropaan), sevoflurane, desflurane, N2O (lachgas) barbituraten (Fenobarbital), primidone (Mysoline®), fenytoïne (Difenylhydantoïne®), benzodiazepines (diazepam (Valium®), clonazepam (Rivotril®)) diazepam, tetrazepam, gajacolglycerine-ether (guaifenesine, Myorelax), baclofen Andere centraal werkzame farmaca Ontstekingsremmers salicylzuur, natriumsalicylaat, methylsalicylaat, acetylsalicylzuur (Aspirine) antipyretische-analgetische: antipyrine, isopyrine, amino-pyramidon, noramidopyrine/metamizol (Novalgine, Vetalgin®) flunixine meglumine (Finadyne), tolfenamzuur (Tolfidine), (meclofenaminezuur ketoprofen (Ketofen), ibuprofen (Brufen), naproxen (Equiproxen), carprofen piroxicam (Feldene), meloxicam (Metacam) tepoxalin (Zubrin®, pyrrolizone verbinding) Narcotische analgetica of morfine-analgetica morfine en half-syntethische opiaten, fentanyl (en alfentanil, sufentanil, carfentanil), meperidine (Dolantine®), methadone (Mephenon®), pentazocine (Fortal®), etorfine (Immobilon®), buprenorfine (Temgesic®), butorfanol (Torbugesic®, Torbutol®)
Autocoïden
Histamine antagonisten
humaan: loratidine (Claritine), terfenadine (Triludan), cetirizine (Zyrtec), astemizole (Hismanal) DGK: hydroxyzine (Vetaraxoid), (tripelenamine (Vetibenzamine)) (Histaminevrijzetting blokkeerders) H2 antihistaminica cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine, nizatidine Prostaglandines & analogen (misoprostol (Cytotec®))
Hormonen
ACTH = corticotropine
Corticosteroïden
Mineralocorticoïden
11-desoxycorticosteron
corticosterone, hydrocortisone (cortisol), cortisone prednisone, prednisolone, fluoroprednisolone, methylprednisolone, dexamethasone, betamethasone Hormonen met een invloed op de geslachtsorganen Releasing gonadotropineRH (GnRH), busereline (Receptal), gonadoreline (Fertagyl), (Ovalyse) oestrone, oestriol, oestradiol, equiline, equilenine, hippuline, ginesteïne, zeranol; diethylstilboestrol (DES), hexoestrol, dienoestrol progesteron; medroxyprogesteronacetaat (MAP), megestrolacetaat (MGA), chloormadinonacetaat (CAP), norethistosteron/17-ethinyl-19-nortestosteron, levonorgestrel, proligeston Preparaten gebruikt in illegale vetmesting: oestradiol, ethinyloestradiol, testosteron, methyltestosteron, trenbolone, progesteron, medroxyprogesteron, zeranol (Somatostatine = somatotropine inhibitory factor) runder-groeihormoon (BST), varken-GH (PST), long-acting: methionyl-BST andere GM met remmende werking op schildklier: NSAID, glucocorticoïden, $-antagonisten Oxytocine
Cardiovasculaire geneesmiddelen
Cardiotonica
Digitalis
digoxine, digitoxine, (ouabaine, ($-methyldigoxine)) verapamil (Isoptine®) (fenylalkylaminen), diltiazem (Tildiem®) (benzothiazepines), nifedipine (Adalat®), amlodipine (Amplor®) (dihydropyridines) captopril, enalapril (Zenalflor®), benazepril (Fortekor®), ramipril (Vasotop®), imidapril (Prilium®) Sartanen
Geneesmiddelen welke het bloed en de bloedelementen beïnvloeden
Bloedstolling
Algemene
vitamine K: K1=fytonadione, K2=menaquinone, K3=menadione; protamine thrombine, microkristallijn collageen, gelatine spons (Gelfoam), geoxideerde cellulose (Oxycel) natrium-oxalaat, natrium-citraat, Na2EDTA, natrium-heparine coumarinederivaten: bishydroxycoumarine (Dicoumarol), 3-4-hydroxycoumarine (Warfarine) ferro-zouten (ferrochloride, Fe2+-ascorbinezuurcomplex), ijzerdextraan
Farmaca met een invloed op het renaal systeem

Diuretica
Koolzuuranhydraseremmers

Farmaca met een invloed op de ademhaling

acetylcysteïne (Mucomyst, Lysomucil), 5-carboxymethylcysteïne (Rhinatrol), bromhexine (Bisolvon), expectorantia (Ipeca, eucalyptus) (efedrine, "-adrenerge imidazol-derivaten (nafazoline, oxymetazoline, tramazoline (Rhinospray)), beclomethason, chromoglicaat)
Farmaca met een invloed op het oog
Miotica
parasympaticomimetica: acetylcholine, pilocarpine, carbachol, metacholine cholinesterase-remmers: fysostigmine, neostigmine, demecarine, ecthiopaat, fluostigmine parasympaticolytica: atropine, scopolamine, homatropine, cyclopentolaat, tropicamide "-sympaticomimetica: adrenaline, fenylefrine, efedrine osmotische diuretica: mannitol, glycerine antibiotica, antiseptica, sulfonamiden: tetracyclines, macroliden, rifampicine, chloramfenicol, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosiden (neomycine, gentamycine, tobramycine), zilvernitraat anti-flogistica: glucocorticoïden: hydrocortisone, prednisolone, dexamethasone, anti-allergica: cyclosporine (Optimune®) kunsttranen: methylcellulose, carbomeren (Vidisic®), polyacrylzuur, varia: vit. A-D oogzalf, natriumhyaluronaat, virostatica (acyclovir, idoxuridine)
Farmaca met een invloed op het maagdarmstelsel
Antacida
NaHCO3, CaCO3, magnesium (MgOH2, magnesiumtrisilicaat), aluminiumverbindingen (AlOH3) bismuthverbindingen (colloidal bismuthsubcitraat, complex met citroenzuur), sucralfaat butylhyoscine bromide (Buscopan Compositum®) anti-cholinergica: scopolamine, atropine H1-antihistaminica: dimenhydrinaat (Dramamine®), cinnarizine (Touristil®) neuroleptica: fenothiazines, butyrofenonen neurokinine-1 antagonisten: maropitant (Cerenia®) gastroprokinetica: betanechol, metoclopramide (Primperan®), domperidone (Motilium®), cisapride (Prepulsid®), 5-HT3-antagonisten (ondansetron (Zofran®)), H+/K+-ATP-ase inhibitoren (omeprazole (Losec®/Logastric®), lansoprazole (Dakar®)) osmotisch actieve stiffen: natriumsulfaat, magnesiumsulfaat, lactalose (Tractonorm Lax®) zwelmiddelen: lijnzaad, psylliumzaden, methylcellulose, zemelen glijmiddelen: vloeibare paraffine, minerale oliën (bv. maïsolie) contactlaxativa: ricinusolie, anthrachinonderivaten (Sennabladeren, rabarber, aloë) laxativa voor rectaal gebruik: met natriumzout (Microlax) of natriumdocusaat (Norgine®) absorbantia: actieve kool (Norit®), kaolin (aluminiumsilicaat), pectine opioïdderivaten: difenoxylaat (Reasec®), loperamide (Imodium®) nitrofuranen: nifuroxazide (Ercefuryl®) Detergenten, antiseptica en desinfectantia

(Detergenten
Anionische
Alcoholen: ethyl- (70%), isopropylalcohol (50%), methanol chloor en anorganische verbindingen: Dakin, calciumhypochloriet (Ca(OCl)2), natriumhypochloriet (NaOCl (javelwater)) organische chloorverbindingen: chlooramines, chloorhexidine (Hibitane®) jodium en derivaten: jodiumtinctuur, jodoforen, povidone-jood (Iso-Betadine®), lugol (Koolteerderivaten: fenol, chloroxylenol (Dettol®))
Anti-infectieuze chemotherapeutica

Sulfonamiden
topicaal gebruik: sulfanilamide, sulfathiazol niet-resorbeerbare sulfa’s: sulfaguanidine, sulfathiazol en derivaten (succinylsulfathiazol), sulfasalazine middellangwerkende sulfa’s: pyrimidinesulfonamiden, sulfachlorpyrazine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimethoxine anti-coccidiale sulfa’s: sulfadimethoxine, sulfadimidine en sulfamerazine, sulfachlorpyrazine, sulfaclozine trimethoprim, aditoprim, baquiloprim, (ormethoprim, pyrimethamine, diaveridine) nitrofurantoine (Furadantine®), hydroxymethylnitrofurantoine (Urfadyn®) nalidixinezuur en oxolinezuur fluoroquinolones: enrofloxacine, ciprofloxacine, norfloxacine, orfloxacine, perfloxacine, marbofloxacine, danofloxacine, difloxacine, sparfloxacine, themafloxacine
Antibiotica

Antibiotica met hoofdzakelijk Gram+ spectrum
- smal werkingsspectrum: penicilline G (benzylpenicilline), penicilline V (phenoxymethyl penicilline) - penicillinase-resistente: methilcilline (dimethoxyphenylpenicilline), oxacilline, cloxacilline, dicloxacilline (isoxazolyl penicillines), nafcilline (ethoxynaphthamidopenicilline) - breed-spectrum: ampicilline ("-aminobenzylpenicilline), amoxicilline, pivampicilline (pro-drug) - uitgebreid breedspectrum: carbenicilline, ticarcilline, piperacilline Groep 2: cefovecin, cefamandole, ceftiofur, cefquinome, cefalexine, cefachlor clavulaanzuur, (sulbactam, tazobactam), Synulox ® (amoxicilline x clavulaanzuur) erythromycine, oleandomycine, spiramycine, tylosine, tilmicosine, clarithromycine, azithromycine, roxithromycine (Ho), tulathromycine Tiamulin: tiamulinbase (pe), tiamulinhydrofumaraat (po) Antibiotica met hoofdzakelijk Gram- spectrum Aminoglycosiden streptomycine, dihydrostreptomycine, neomycine, kanamycine, paromomycine, spectinomycine (aminocyclitol), gentamicine, apramycine, amikacine (Ho), tobramycine (Ho), netilmicine (Ho) Antibiotica met een breedspectrum activiteit tetracycline, (chloortetracycline), oxytetracycline, doxycycline Ho: metacycline, (minocycline), clomocycline, lymecycline
Anti-protozoaire middelen

Nitro-imidazolverbindingen
metronidazole, dimetridazole, carnidazole, ronidazole sulfamezathine, sulfaquinoxaline, sulfamethoxine, sulfachlorpyrazine monensin, lasalocid, narasin/salinomycine/maduramycine
Antimycotica

Systemische antimycotica
Monosulfiram
Anthelmetica

Wormmiddelen tegen nematoden
(thiabendazole), (mebendazole), flubendazole, fenbendazole, oxfendazole, albendazole, triclabendazole avermectinen: ivermectine, (abamectine), doramectine, eprinomectine, selamectine milbemycinen: moxidectine, milbemycine-oxime, emodepside Praziquantel benzimidazolen: febendazole, oxfendazole, albendazole, pyrantel, mebendazole Wormmiddelen tegen trematoden Salicylanilides albendazole, luxabendazole, triclabendazole, netobimine
Anti-ectoparasitica

Cholinesterase-remmers
Fosfaatesters
cythioaat, diazinon, crotoxyphos, dichloorvos, dimethoaat, fenithrotion, trichloorfon, fenthion, temefos, fosmet, foxim, chloorfenvinfos, tetrachloorvinfos pyrethrin I, pyrethrin II, jasmolin I, jasmolin II, cinerine I, cinerine II permethrine, allethrine, cypermethrine, deltamethrine, flumethrine, cyfluthrine

Source: http://studentonbekend.nl/studiehulp/samenvattingen/bijzondere-farmacologie_overzicht-farmaca.pdf

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