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Scientific Citation Style: McMillan and CSE
McMillan's Writing Papers in the Biological Sciences
, 5th edition, is located in the reference area of the library (AC1.M36 2012) and in the circulating collection, and may be purchased at bookstores. Writing Papers
is based on the Council of Science Editors (CSE) Scientific Style and Format
manual, 7th edition, located in the reference area of the library (AC1.S386 2006).
When you use the words or original ideas of another person in your writing they must be documented. There are several different formats used for documentation in the biological and environmental sciences, including APA style; consult your instructor to determine which is appropriate for your field. ______________________________________________________________________
HOW TO CITE SOURCES IN THE TEXT
In the sciences, sources of information (references) may be identified in the text of the
paper rather than in footnotes. The in-text reference information you provide leads the
reader to the "Literature Cited" section at the end of your paper, where complete
information is provided. Following are just a few examples from Writing Papers in the
, using the Harvard System (Name-Year). Consult McMillan,
Chapter 6, for additional examples.
DIRECT QUOTES. Use direct quotes sparingly
, but when you do, include the page
Rith-Najarian (1998, p.3) has written, ".
WORK BY ONE AUTHOR
A recent study.(Scipione 2008) suggests that.
The presence of hairs on a leaf can increase.(McCoy 1996).
WHEN THE AUTHOR'S NAME IS PART OF THE SENTENCE
In Chandler's (2009) study of.
WORK BY TWO AUTHORS
Other researchers (Silsby and Dunkle 1981) have suggested.
WORK BY THREE OR MORE AUTHORS
Henry et al. (2000) have suggested that…
White-lined bark beetles.(Zorn et al 1992).
MULTIPLE WORKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR
The role of plasmids…has been described.by Wylie (1988, 2002, 2009).
TWO OR MORE WORKS BY DIFFERENT AUTHORS
Many different models have been proposed… (Watkins 1997, 1999; Moss 2000; Cappy
ARTICLE OR CHAPTER IN AN EDITED VOLUME
Cite the author of the material you are referring to, not the editor(s) of the entire book
WORKS YOU HAVE NOT CONSULTED DIRECTLY
(try to avoid doing this!)
Arcari (1954, cited in Castrodale 1985) reported that. Note:
List both sources in the Literature Cited section
WHEN NO AUTHOR IS GIVEN
, use the first few words of the title in place of the
author's name; add an ellipse before the date
This species has been reported.(Common dragonflies.1999).
(including e-mail and personal communicatons)
D. Craine (personal communication; unreferenced) has suggested.
This species has also been found.(L Urban, 2000, unpublished data; unreferenced). Note: Do Not list unreferenced material in the Literature Cited section
THE LITERATURE CITED SECTION
(also called References or References Cited)
The Literature Cited section at the end of your paper includes all, and only, those sources cited in your paper.
Journal articles, books, documents, and unpublished works all appear in
the same list, alphabetically by author's last name (if there is no author, use
the first few words of the title)
Single space each entry, and double space between entries
2 to 10 authors: list all; more than 10, list the first 10 followed by et al.
Punctuation and abbreviations are important! For details, please consult
McMillan or CSE
EXAMPLES OF PRINT SOURCES
JOURNAL ARTICLE BY A SINGLE AUTHOR
Sacher DB. 1994. Budesonide for inflammatory bowel disease: is it a magic bullet? N
Engl J Med 331:873-4.
ARTICLE OR CHAPTER IN AN EDITED VOLUME
Petter JJ. 1965. The lemurs of Madagascar. In: DeVore I, editor. Primate behavior: field
studies of monkeys and apes. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. p. 292-319.
JOURNAL ARTICLE WITH TWO OR MORE AUTHORS
Vaughan JL, King KA, Cottrell RR. 2004. Collegiate athletic trainers’ confidence in
helping female athletes with eating disorders. J Athl Train. 39(1):71-76.
ORGANIZATION AS AUTHOR
[ICPO] International Committee for Preservation of Odonata. 2000. Guidelines for
evaluating dragonfly habitats as conservation areas. Boston: Entomological Publishers.
Health care for multiple sclerosis. 2006. New York: US Health Care. \
Koleta G. 2007 Jan 7. Kill all the bacteria! New York Times;Sect. B:1(col.3).
Schott J, Priest, J. 2002. Leading antenatal classes: a practical guide. 2nd ed. Boston
(MA): Books for Midwives.
BOOK WITH AN EDITOR
Danforth DN, editor. 1982. Obstetrics and gynecology. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Harper and
BOOK WITH TWO TO TEN AUTHORS
Hepburn PX, Tatin JM. 2006. Human physiology. New York: Columbia University Press.
CITING ONLINE SOURCES
PROFESSIONAL OR PERSONAL SITE:
give the author(s) and the title - the most prominent words on the page -, followed by
provide the place of publication or origin, followed by
: web pages often have several dates, as shown below: publication date
(when the material was placed on the internet), the copyright date (c), the latest
revision date, and the date the site was viewed by the writer.
: plant pathology online [Internet]. c1994-2005. St. Paul (MN): American
Phytopathological Association; [cited 2005 Jun 20]. Available from:
ARTICLE FROM AN INTERNET-ONLY JOURNAL
Nuorti P, Kotilainen P, Lappalainen M. 2003 May. Travel associated probable case of
SARS, Finland, with commentary from Health Canada. Eurosurveillance Wkly [Internet].
[cited 2005 Apr 12];7(22):[5 p.]. Available from:
Information about influenza pandemics [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention; [updated 2005 Mar 8; cited 2005 11 Apr]. [about 2 p.]. Available
ARTICLE FROM ONLINE JOURNAL DATABASE
Kingsolver JC, Srygley RB. 2000. Experimental analyses of body size, flight and
survival in pierid butterflies. Evol. Ecol. Res. [online];2:593-612. Available from
Biological Sciences database. Accessed 2000 Oct 3.
ELECTRONIC VERSION OF JOURNAL ARTICLE ALSO AVAILABLE IN PRINT
St. John RK, King A, de Jong D, Bodie-Collins M, Squires SG, Tarn TWS. 2005 Jan.
Border screening for SARS. Emerg Infect Dis [Internet]. [cited 2005 Apr 8]; 11(1):6-10.
Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol11no01/04-0835.htm
Ruch BJ, Ruch DB. 2006. Homeopathy and medicine: resolving the conflict [Internet].
New York: Albert Einstein College of Medicine [cited 2007 Jan 28]. Available from:
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