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Reams of empirical studies and a century or two of social theory have noticed
that modernity produces increasingly shallow and instrumental relationships.
Where bonds of mutuality, based on face-to-face connection, once survived, we
now tend to exist in a depthless, dematerialized technoculture. This is the trajec-tory of industrial mass society, not transcending itself through technology, butinstead becoming ever more fully realized.
In this context, it is striking to note that the original usage of “virtual” was
as the adjectival form of “virtue”. Virtual reality is not only the creation of anarcissistic subculture; it represents a much wider loss of identity and reality. Itsessential goal is the perfect intimacy of human and machine, the eradication ofdiﬀerence between in-person and computer-based interaction.
Second Life. Born Again. Both are escape routes from a gravely worsening
reality. Both the high-tech and the fundamentalist options are passive responsesto the actual situation now engulﬁng us. We are so physically and socially distantfrom one another, and encroaching virtuality drives us ever further apart. Wecan choose to “live” as free-ﬂoating surrogates in the new, untrashed Denial Landof VR, but only if we embrace what Žižek called “the ruthless technological drive
Cyberspace means collapsing nature into technology, in the words of Alluc-
quere Rosanne Stone; she notes that we are losing our grounding as physicalbeings.The key response in the arid techno-world is, of course, more technology.
Drug technology, for the 70 million Americans with insomnia; for the sexuallydysfunctional males now dependent on Viagra. Cialis. etc.; for the depressed andanxious who no longer dream or feel.
And as this regime works to further ﬂatten and suppress direct experience.
Virtual Reality, its latest triumph, comes in to ﬁll the void. Second Life. There,
and whatever brand is next to oﬀer dream worlds, to a world denuded of dreams.
In our time, “virtual bereavement” and “online grieving” are touted as superior tobeing present to comfort those who mourwhere tiny infants are subjected to
videos; where “teledildonics” delivers simulated sex to distant subjects.
“Welcome to Second Life. We look forward to seeing you in-world”, the website
promo beckons. Immersive and interactive, VR provides the space so unlike thereality its customers reject. For a few dollars, anyone can exist there as an “avatar”
who will never grow old, bored, or overweight. Wade Roush of Technology Review
declares Second Life a success insofar as it is “less lonely and less predictable”
Slavoj Žižek, The Plague of Fantasies (New York: Verso. 1997). p. 44.
Allucquere Rosanne Stone, “Will the Real Body Please Stand Up?” in Michael Benedikt, ed. Cyber-space: First Steps (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 1991).
Joseph Hart, “Grief Goes Online” in Utne, April 2007.
than the life we have nowThis inversion of reality is the consolation of thesupernatural of many religions, and serves a similar substitutive function.
Reality is disappearing behind a screen, as the separation of mind from body and
nature intensiﬁes. The technical means are being perfected fairly quickly, makinggood on the promises of the early 1990s. At that time VR, despite much ballyhoo,could not really deliver the goods. Fifteen or so years later, the technology ofSecond Life (for example) engages many users with a strong sense of physicalpresence and other pseudo-sensory eﬀects. Virtual reality is now the deﬁnitiveexpression of the postmodern condition, perhaps best typiﬁed by the fact thatnothing wild exists there, only what serves human consumption.
Foucault described the shift of power in modernity from sovereignty to dis-
cipline, and an enormously technologized daily life has accelerated this shift.Contemporary life is thoroughly surveilled and policed, to an unprecedented de-gree. But the weight and density of tech mediation create an even more deﬁningreality, and a more profound stage of control. When the nature of experience, ona primary level, is so deeply altered, we are seeing a fundamental shift — a shiftbeing extended everywhere, at an accelerating pace.
Virtual reality best typiﬁes this movement, its simulations and robotic fantasies
a cutting-edge component of the steadily advancing, universalizing, standardizingglobal culture. Sadly pertinent is Philip Zai’s judgment that VR is the “metaphysi-cal maturity of civilization”All that is tangible, sensual, and earth-based corrodesand shrinks within technologically mediated existence.
Of course, there are forms of resistance to this latest eﬄorescence of the false.
But a luddite reaction always seems to pale before the magnitude of what it faces.
There is a very long, sedimented history behind every newest technological move,an unbroken chain of contingency. The leap involved in grasping new technicsis made easier by the gradual impoverishment of human desires and aptitudescaused by the earlier innovations. The promise is, always, that more technology
will bring improvement — which more accurately means, more technology will
Wade Roush, “Second Earth” in Technology Review, July/August 2007, p. 48.
Widely circulated books include: Howard Rheingold, Virtual Reality (New York: Summit Books,1991); Michael Heim, The Metaphysics of VR (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993); RudyRucker, R. U. Sirius, Queen Mu, Mondo 2000: A User’s Guide (New York: Harper-Collins, 1992);Nadia Magnemat Thalmann and Daniel Thalmann, Virtual Worlds and Multimedia (New York: Wiley,1993) Benjamin Woolley, Virtual Worlds (Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1992). An excellent correctiveis Robert Markley, ed., Virtual Realities and Their Discontents (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UniversityPress, 1996).
For his idiosyncratic twist on this, see Jean Baudrillard. Forget Foucault (New York: Semiotext, 1987).
Philip Zai, Get Real: A Philosophical Adventure in Virtual Reality (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littleﬁeld,1998), p. 171.
make up for what was lost in the preceding “advances”. The only way out is tobreak this chain, by refusing its imperative.
Heidegger assailed the “objectiﬁcation of all beings . . . brought into the dis-
posal of representation and production,” pointing out that “nature appears every-
where as the object of technology”, and concluding that “World becomes object”.
He also understood how technology changes our relation to things, a phenome-non underlined by virtual reality. “Talk of a respect for things is more and moreunintelligible in a world that is becoming ever more technical. They are simply
vanishing . . . ” remarked Gadamer.Virtuality is certainly that “vanishing”.
There has been in fact a recent counter-attack in favor of respecting things
as such, in favor of freeing them from an instrumental status, at least on thephilosophical plane. Titles such as Things (2004) and The Lure of the Object (2005)speak to this.Desire for the authentic experience of “thingness” (Heidegger’sterm) is a rebuke to the pathological condition known as modernity, a realizationthat “accepting the otherness of things is the condition for accepting othernessas such.
Immersion in virtual reality is a particularly virulent strain of this pathology
because of the degree of interactivity and self-representation involved. Neverhas the built environment depended so crucially on our participation, and neverbefore has this participation been so potentially totalizing. With its appeal as,literally, a second life, a second world, it is The Matrix — one that we ourselvesare to continually pay to reproduce. Heinz Pagels’ description of the symbolic, ingeneral, certainly applies to virtual reality: in denying “the immediacy of realityand in creating a substitute we have but spun another thread in the web of ourgrand illusion.”This use of cyberspace takes representation to new levels of self-enclosure and self-domestication.
Spengler’s survey of Western civilization led him to conclude that “an artiﬁcial
world is permeating and poisoning the natural. The civilization itself has become
a machine that does, or tries to do, everything in mechanical fashion.Second
Martin Heidegger, “Nietzsche’s Word ‘God is Dead’” in his Oﬀ the Beaten Track, translated andedited by Julian Young and Kenneth Haynes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), p. 191.
Hans-Georg Gadamer, Philosophical Hermeneutics, translated and edited by David E. Linge (Berkeley:University of California Press, 1976), p. 71.
Bill Brown, ed, Things (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004); Stephen Melville, ed., The Lureof Things (Williamstown, MA: Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, 2005).
Heinz R. Pagels, The Dreams of Reason: The Computer and the Rise of the Sciences of Complexity (NewYork: Simon and Schuster, 1988).
Oswald Spengler, Man and Technics, translated by Charles Franco Atkinson (Wesport, CT: Green-
Life, Google Earth, etc., using graphics cards and broadband connections aresophisticated and enticing escape hatches, but it’s still the same basic machineorientation. And VR, as David Gelernter happily proclaimed, “is the sort ofinstrument that modern life demands.
Born of military research and the entertainment industry, Virtual Reality de-
pends on us for its projected role throughout society. Real virtuality will be thenorm when it infects various spheres, but only with our active consent. Wittgen-stein felt that “it is not absurd e.g. to believe that the age of science and technologyis the beginning of the end for humanity.Science and technology are the great-est triumphs of civilization, and the point is more grimly apparent than ever.
David Gelantner, Mirror Worlds (New York: Oxford University Press. 1991), p. 34.
Ludwig Wittgenstein, Culture and Value, translated by P. Winch (Oxford: Blackwell, 1986), p. 56.
From Green Anarchy #25, Spring-Summer 2008
NEUROSURGERY REVISION KEY TOPICS 1. Neurological examination 2. Special investigations 3. General care 4. Head Injury 5. Cerebrovascular disease 6. Brain tumour 7. Neurosurgical infections 8. Spinal disease 9. Congenital abnormalities 10. Functional neurosurgery 1. Neurological examination : Refer to a standard textbook on clinical neurological examination. 2. Special investigations
Int J Dent Case Reports 2012; 2(5): 9-14 PHENYTOIN-INDUCED GINGIVAL ENLARGEMENT: MULTIDIS CIPLINARY CLINICAL MANAGEMENT: A CAS E REPORT Preeti Moda1, Aman Moda2, Pallavi Pandey3 1 Reader, Department of Periodontics, Government Dental College, Raipur, Chattisgarh, India 2 Reader, Department of Pedodontics, Guru Gobind Singh College of Dental Sciences, Burhanpur, Madhyapradesh, 3 Senior