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Microsoft word - sample-care-plan_prostate.doc
This Survivorship Care Plan will facilitate cancer care following active treatment. It may
include important contact information, a treatment summary, recommendations for follow-up care testing, a directory of support services and resources, and other information. 
Survivorship Care Plan
Jennifer Fournier, RN MSN AOCN CHPN on 6/16/2012 at Oncology
Medical record number
Date of birth
Age at diagnosis
Primary care physician
Mental health/social worker
Family history/predisposing conditions
Previous biopsies confirmed to be negative for tumor in 2008;
Other health concerns
2013 Journey Forward. All Rights Reserved. Journey Forward thanks Jennifer Fournier RN, MSN, AOCN-R, CHPN for her content contribution.
New or recurrent cancer diagnosis
Surgical procedure & findings
Robotic-assisted laparoscopic rostatectomy; positive left lateral
Location(s) of metastasis or recurrence
Treatment Plan & Summary
Prostate bed boost 6840cGy; Prostate bed lymphatics 4500
cGy, Administered, to Prostate bed boost 25 fractions, Prostate
bed lymphatics 13 fractions, 11/14/2011-1/9/2012
Medical oncology visits
Potential late effects of treatment
Symptoms to watch for
Increased pain, especially bone pain; change in bladder or
bowel habits; leg weakness; blood in urine or coming from
Needs or concerns
Prevention & wellness
Tobacco cessation, plant-based diet, regular exercise
Emotional or mental health
Continue with bipolar medications and follow-up
Financial advice or assistance
Social work referral for financial assistance
Smoking cessation counselor
Physical therapist/exercise specialist
Report any problems that occur before next scheduled
Ejaculation and Cancer Treatment
Cancer treatment can interfere with ejaculation by damaging the nerves that control the prostate, seminal vesicles, and the opening to the bladder. It can also stop semen from being made in the prostate and seminal
vesicles. Despite this damage, a man can still feel the sensation of pleasure that makes an orgasm. The
difference is that, at the moment of orgasm, little or no semen comes out. Some men say an orgasm without semen feels totally normal. Many others say the orgasm does not feel as
strong, long-lasting, or pleasurable. Men often worry that their partners will miss the semen. Most of the time,
their partners cannot feel the actual fluid release, so this is generally not true.
Some men's chief concern is that orgasm is less satisfying than before. Others are upset by "dry" orgasms because they want to father a child. If a man knows before treatment that he may want to have a child after
treatment, he may be able to bank (save and preserve) sperm for future use. (See Fertility and cancer treatment
Some men also feel that their orgasm is weaker than before. A mild decrease in the intensity of orgasm is normal
with aging, but it can be more severe in men whose cancer treatments interfere with ejaculation of semen. See
"Is there a way to make orgasms as intense as they used to be?" in Dealing with sexual problems
Surgery and ejaculation
Surgery can affect ejaculation in 2 different ways. The first is when surgery removes the prostate and seminal
vesicles, so that a man can no longer make semen. The other is surgery that damages the nerves that come
from the spine and control emission (when sperm and fluid mix to make semen). Note that these are not the
same nerve bundles that pass next to the prostate and control erections. The surgeries that cause ejaculation
problems are discussed in more detail here.
Removal of the prostate gland and seminal vesicles can cause dry orgasm
The types of cancer surgery that remove the prostate gland and the seminal vesicles are called:
Radical prostatectomy (removal of the prostate)
A man will no longer produce any semen after these surgeries. The sperm cells made in his testicles ripen, but then the body simply reabsorbs them. This is not harmful. After these cancer surgeries, a man will have a "dry"
Sometimes the semen is there, but doesn't come out
There are other operations that cause ejaculation to go back inside the body rather than come out (this is called retrograde ejaculation
). At the moment of orgasm, the semen shoots backward into the bladder rather than out
through the penis. This is because the valve between the bladder and urethra stays open after some surgical
procedures. This valve normally shuts tightly during emission. When it's open, the path of least resistance for the
semen then becomes the backward path into the bladder. This does not cause pain or harm to the man. When a man urinates after this type of dry orgasm, his urine looks cloudy because the semen mixes in with it during the
A transurethral resection is an example of an operation that usually causes retrograde ejaculation. This surgery
cores out the prostate by passing a special scope into it through the urethra; this often damages the bladder
We have already discussed the nerve bundles that sit on both sides of the prostate and control blood flow to
cause erections. Now, we are talking about the nerves that come from the spine and control emission. The cancer operations that can cause "dry" orgasm by damaging the nerves that control emission (the mixing of the sperm
Abdominoperineal (AP) resection, which removes the rectum and lower colon
Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, which removes lymph nodes in the belly (abdomen), usually in
Some of the nerves that control emission run close to the lower colon and are damaged by AP resection. Lymph
node removal (dissection) damages the nerves higher up, where they surround the aorta (the large main artery
The effects of the 2 operations are probably very much alike, but more is known about sexual function after
lymph node surgery. Sometimes the node dissection only causes retrograde ejaculation. But it usually paralyzes
emission. When this happens, the prostate and seminal vesicles cannot contract to mix the semen with the
sperm cells. In either case the result is a "dry" orgasm. The difference between no emission at all and retrograde ejaculation is important if a man wants to father a child. Retrograde ejaculation is better for would-be fathers
because sperm cells may be taken from a man's urine and used to make a woman pregnant.
Sometimes the nerves that control emission recover from the damage caused by retroperitoneal lymph node
dissection. But if ejaculation of semen does resume, it can take up to 3 years for it to happen. Because men with
testicular cancer are often young and have not finished having children, surgeons have nerve-sparing methods that often allow normal ejaculation after retroperitoneal node dissection. In experienced hands, these techniques
have a very high rate of preserving the nerves and normal ejaculation. (See our document called Testicular
(http://www.cancer.org/ssLINK/testicular-cancer-detailed-guide-toc) for more information.) Some
medicines can also restore ejaculation of semen just long enough to collect sperm for conception. If sperm cells cannot be recovered from a man's semen or urine, infertility specialists may be able to retrieve them directly
from the testicle by minor surgery, then use them to fertilize a woman's egg to produce a pregnancy.
Retroperitoneal node dissection does not stop a man's erections or ability to reach orgasm. But it may mean that
his pleasure at orgasm will be less intense.
Urine leakage during ejaculation Climacturia
is the term used to describe the leakage of urine during orgasm. This is fairly common after prostate
surgery, but may not even be noticed. The amount of urine varies widely -- anywhere from a few drops to over
an ounce. It is more common in men who also have stress incontinence. (Men with stress incontinence leak urine
when they cough, laugh, sneeze, or exercise. It is caused by weakness in the muscles that control urine flow.)
Urine is not dangerous to the sexual partner, though it may be a bother during sex. The leakage tends to get better over time, and condoms and constriction bands can help. (Constriction bands are tightened at the base of
the erect penis and squeeze the urethra to keep urine from leaking out.) If you or your partner is bothered by
climacturia, talk to your doctor to learn what you can do about it.
How other cancer treatments affect ejaculation
Some cancer treatments reduce the amount of semen that is produced. After radiation to the prostate, some
men ejaculate only a few drops of semen. Toward the end of radiation treatments, men often feel a sharp pain as
they ejaculate. The pain is caused by irritation in the urethra (the tube that carries urine and semen through the
penis). It should go away over time after treatment ends.
In most cases, men who have hormone therapy for prostate cancer also produce less semen than before.
Chemotherapy very rarely affects ejaculation. But there are some drugs that may cause retrograde ejaculation by
damaging the nerves that control emission.
2011 American Cancer Society. All Rights Reserved.
Second Cancers Caused by Cancer Treatment
Men whose prostates have been removed or destroyed with radiation can no longer get a new case of prostate
cancer, but they can get recurrence of the original prostate cancer (the cancer can come back after treatment). Men who are treated with radiation therapy have a higher risk of bladder cancer later on than men who had
surgery to remove their prostates. They may also have a higher risk for colon and rectal cancer. This increased risk is mainly seen in men who were treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Men who had seed
implants (brachytherapy) without EBRT may have a slightly increased risk of these cancers, but it is lower than
what is seen with EBRT. Overall, the risk seen with radiation therapy is not high, but it can continue for more than 10 years after treatment.
The risk is likely related to the dose of radiation, as it is with other cancers. Men who get seed implants typically
get less radiation to nearby organs than those who get EBRT, either by itself or along with seeds. Newer methods of giving EBRT, such as intensity modulated and conformal beam radiation therapy, may have
different effects on the risks of a second cancer. Because these methods are newer, the long-term effects have not been studied as well.
Some studies looking at the long term effects of prostate cancer treatment have found an increased risk of melanoma (a type of skin cancer) after radiation therapy, but this higher risk was seen after prostatectomy
(surgery to remove the prostate) as well.
At one point, high doses of the female hormone estrogen were used to treat advanced prostate cancer. This was linked to breast cancer in some men. Estrogen is no longer a standard treatment for prostate cancer.
Survivors who are treated with radiation have an increased risk of certain second cancers, so they should get careful follow-up. There are no special recommendations for watching for second cancers after prostate treatment
at this time, although men who have had radiation to treat prostate cancer should be careful to follow screening
recommendations for colorectal cancer to improve the chance of early detection. Your doctor will also be watching closely for recurrence of the prostate cancer. You should also report problems passing urine, blood in your urine,
rectal pain, or rectal bleeding to your doctor right away.
All patients should be encouraged to avoid tobacco smoke. Men who smoke may further increase their risk of
bladder cancer after prostate radiation, since smoking is a known risk factor for bladder cancer.
2011 American Cancer Society. All Rights Reserved.
What Happens After Treatment for Prostate Cancer?
Completing treatment can be both stressful and exciting. You may be relieved to finish treatment, but find it
hard not to worry about cancer coming back. (When cancer comes back after treatment, it is called recurrence
.) This is a very common concern in people who have had cancer. It may take a while before your fears lessen. But it may help to know that many cancer survivors have learned
to live with this uncertainty and are living full lives. The document, Living With Uncertainty: The Fear of Cancer
(http://www.cancer.org/ssLINK/living-with-uncertainty-toc), gives more detailed information on
When treatment ends, your doctors will still want to watch you closely. It is very important to go to all of your
follow-up appointments. During these visits, your doctors will ask questions about any problems you may have
and may do exams and lab tests or x-rays and scans to look for signs of cancer or treatment side effects.
Your doctor should give you a follow-up plan. This plan usually includes regular doctor visits, PSA blood tests, and digital rectal exams, which will likely begin within a few months of finishing treatment. Most doctors
recommend PSA tests about every 3-6 months for the first 5 years after treatment, and at least yearly after
that. Bone scans or other imaging tests may also be done, depending on your medical situation.
Almost any cancer treatment can have side effects. Some may last for a few weeks to months, but others can
last the rest of your life. This is the time for you to talk to your cancer care team about any changes or
problems you notice and any questions or concerns you have.
It is important to keep health insurance. Tests and doctor visits cost a lot, and even though no one wants to
think of their cancer coming back, this could happen.
Prostate cancer can recur many years after initial treatment, which is why it is important to keep regular doctor
visits and report any new symptoms (such as bone pain or problems with urination). Should your prostate
cancer come back, your treatment options will depend on where it is thought to be located and what types of
treatment you've already had. For more information, see How is prostate cancer treated?
Should your cancer come back, the document, When Your Cancer Comes Back: Cancer Recurrence
(http://www.cancer.org/ssLINK/when-your-cancer-comes-back-toc) can give you information on how to
manage and cope with this phase of your treatment.
Seeing a new doctor
At some point after your cancer diagnosis and treatment, you may find yourself seeing a new doctor who does
not know anything about your medical history. It is important that you be able to give your new doctor the
details of your diagnosis and treatment. Make sure you have this information handy:
A copy of your Survivorship Care Plan
A copy of your pathology report(s) from any biopsies or surgeries
If you had surgery, a copy of your operative report(s)
If you had radiation therapy, a copy of your treatment summary
If you were hospitalized, a copy of the discharge summary that every doctor must prepare when
patients are sent home from the hospital
Finally, since some drugs can have long-term side effects, a list of your drugs (including chemotherapy,
hormone therapy, and vaccine therapy), drug doses, and when you took them
The doctor may want copies of this information for his records, but always keep copies for yourself.
2011 American Cancer Society. All Rights Reserved.
: Important caution.
This is a summary document whose purpose is to review the highlights of the cancer chemotherapy treatment
plan for this patient. This does not replace information available in the medical record, a complete medical
history provided by the patient, examination and diagnostic information, or educational materials that describe
strategies for coping with cancer and adjuvant chemotherapy in detail. Both medical science and an individual’s health care needs change, and therefore this document is current only as of the date of preparation. This
summary document does not prescribe or recommend any particular medical treatment or care for cancer or
sease and does not substitute for the independent medical judgment of the treating professional.
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